Monday, September 30, 2019
The resources chosen for this exercise are a song and a series of related pictures. The pictures are images that contain science fiction-like elements which would be of interest to this elementary group within the demographic of 20 to 45 years. The lesson created for the students using these materials appeals to the development of their aural receptive skill, as the song lyrics contain many shorter phrases and sentences and phrases that students of that level are likely to be able to understand. It therefore combines audio with visual stimulation in order to create a greater impact of the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ learning capacity. Objective: The students will function in an English-speaking role by become a member of the audience for an authentic aural experience. This reflects an attempt to move away from the Grammar Translation Method (Brown, 2000, p. 16). The students are expected to be able to understand the lyrics contained in the song with the help of several scaffolding exercises. Students will experience the reinforcement of words, phrases and grammatical constructions that have previously been taught. They will also learn new words and phrases, as well as observe authentic ways in which native English speakers sometimes bend the rules of Standard English. The reinforcement activities used in the lesson (repetition, scrambling, etc. ) will aid the production skill of speaking as it allows the hearer the opportunity to try to say the word or phrase and the repetitions done within the song (chorus/refrain). They will give the student opportunities to try and retry pronunciation until perfection is achieved. Rationale: 1. The interest of the students in music is expected be piqued by the lead-in exercise. It aids them by capturing and keeping their attention fixed on the task. Because Ã¢â¬Å"a complex task such as language learning involves [all methods] of learning, from signal learning to problem solving,Ã¢â¬ this task seeks to stimulate the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ faculties so they are prompted to use all their resources (visual, aural and reasoning skills) to figure out what happens in the song (Brown, 2005, p. 91-92). 2. Students are asked to look at the pictures being generated and create an order for the story in order to keep their minds on the task and engaging their interest in it. It also gets them thinking about the possible vocabulary related to the topic. The students are given the chance to make predictions about the story in an effort to encourage their speech in English the translation of ideas into a language other than their native one. When they have practice translating their own thoughts into English, it makes each successive attempt to do so easier. This task also focuses on visual reception. 3. This task focuses on aural and visual reception, as the teacher says the name of the objects as he/she shows its picture. However, the task also aids oral production in that it identifies and unites the visual representation of the word in print with the sound it has when a native speaker uses it. This is as opposed to learning vocabulary in isolation, as according to Ausubel, Ã¢â¬Å"people of all ages have little need for rote, mechanistic learningÃ¢â¬ (qtd. in Brown, 2000, p. 63). The pictures act as a method of scaffolding via which the students are able to better understand (or learn) the words being spoken. 4. The pre-teaching exercises have laid the foundation and now facilitate the gathering of the gist of the song in its first playing. The scrambling of the lyrics acts as a means of scaffolding these elementary learners and helps them to know what they are to listen for. This is done so that students are able to get the broad understanding during the first viewing, and this frees them to listen for details in the second listening. It also gives them a chance to use new words and phrases they may have picked up during the exercise and aids in the clarification of details that students might have misunderstood. 5. Students are required to read various sentences and phrases of the song in order to reinforce their ability to speak the language and to make predictions about grammar and diction. It also gives them a chance to say the word in the way a native would pronounce them rather than adhering too closely to a phonetic representation of the words/phrases. It also gives them the opportunity to query new words or phrases they heard in the film. Repetition of the song also reinforces listening comprehension, especially as it regards hearing the details. Later, the collaborative listening and speaking (in pairs) allows the students to pool their resources in constructing a coherent English reconstruction of the lyrics. This gives students a chance to learn from each other. It puts the language even more into the context of social interactionÃ¢â¬âbuilding on the idea that Ã¢â¬Å"language is behaviour, that is, a phase of human activity that must not be treated in essence as structurally divorced from the structure of non-verbal human activityÃ¢â¬ (Pike, 1967, p. 26). The activity also gives them practice speaking the language to each other and prepares them informally for their oral presentation assignment. 6. The oral presentation is focused specifically on the oral aspect of using the English language. The students are expected to put their own thoughts together in the form of a story and translate their ideas into an English medium. In this way, they are encouraged to speak the language so that native and non-native speakers will be able to understand. Because this part of the lesson is an extension, it allows them to use some of the words and phrases they have learned in the lesson. 7. The flexi stage of the lesson also provides the students with the collaborative help that will enhance their ability to express themselves. Because they have a choice in what they present, their interest is likely to be sustained (Brown, 2000; Scrivener, 2005). The assignment also allows them the time and freedom to locate new words and phrases that will aid their articulation of their ideas. This also encourages learning of new English words, phrases and grammatical constructions. The task also provides a means of productive discussion and extension without overwhelming the students. References Brown, H. D. (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching. White Plains: Pearson Education. Pike, K. (1967). Language in relation to a unified theory of the structure of human behavior. The Hague: Mouton Publishers. Scrivener, J. (2005). Learning Teaching. New York: MacMillan.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Facial recognition technology refers to a computer driven application that automatically identifies an individual from his or her digital image by a comparison of particular facial features in a facial database and in the live image (Ã¢â¬Å"Face Recognition,Ã¢â¬ 2007). The technology creates a template of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s facial configurations, such as the lengths of their noses and the angles of their jaws. It thereby functions like the other biometric technologies (e. g. iris scanning) that use biological features for the purposes of recognition. According to Visionics, a manufacturer of face recognition technology, this technology is capable of finding human faces Ã¢â¬Å"anywhere in the field of view and at any distance, and it can continuously track them and crop them out of the scene, matching the face against a watch listÃ¢â¬ (Kautzer). While iris scanning and other kinds of biometric technologies are known to be far more accurate than the face recognition technology, it is believed that the latter would be more widely accepted because it is least intrusive. The technology also does not require users to push, click, or insert anything into the system. Moreover, companies using the face recognition technology do not require the installation of anything except the new software application. The cameras in place as well as the pictures of their employees on file are enough for companies that use the technology. Hence, face recognition technology is cheaper for organizations than the iris scanning, for instance, which requires reading setups. According to Frances Zelazney of Visionics, yet another advantage of facial recognition technology as compared to the other biometric technologies is that Ã¢â¬Å"[unlike] other biometrics, facial recognition provides for inherent human backup because we naturally recognize one anotherÃ¢â¬ ¦ If the system goes down, someone can pull out an ID with a picture as backup, something you canÃ¢â¬â¢t do with fingerprint devices (Rutherford, 2001). Ã¢â¬ Unsurprisingly, facial recognition technology is known as the fastest growing biometric technology in our day. Law enforcement agencies and the military have been using the technology successfully for many years without the public being aware of it. In the year 1988, the Los Angeles County SheriffÃ¢â¬â¢s Department (Lakewood Division) began using composite sketches of suspects, as well as video images, in order to conduct searches on a database of digital facial shots. The department also has a photo database of sex offenders, and plans to find suspects on this database. Then there is the Gang Reporting Evaluation Tracking system that can be searched with the use of photos of suspects in order for law enforcement to circumvent false identification cards as well as information that has been presented by gang members (Jarvis). There are numerous United States embassies around the world that are already using the face recognition technology to keep criminals from entering the country. The Israel-Palestine border control is similarly equipped with the technology to reduce crime across the border (Jarvis). IQ Biometrix, established in 2001, is a company providing help to thousands of law enforcement agencies around the world with the FACESTM, which is a groundbreaking software tool allowing for the Ã¢â¬Å"creation and recreation of billions of facial images, as well as their encoding, cataloging and transmitting. Ã¢â¬ The technology incorporates a facial composite tool that the FBI and the CIA also use. The United States Department of Defense, the U. S. Navy, and various local as well as state police agencies have similarly opted for this groundbreaking system of facial recognition (IQ Biometrix, 2004). Given the importance of putting a name to a face, whether it is to solve crimes, protect the public, or to ensure security in jails, face recognition technology is proving itself to be of tremendous value. Sheriff Everett Rice along with the Pinellas County SheriffÃ¢â¬â¢s Office in Florida employs the Viisage face recognition technology to Ã¢â¬Å"positively identify and verify individuals. Ã¢â¬ Some of these individuals have just been recently arrested, while others are about to released. The face recognition technology is also of use with people that visit the courthouse. So far, the application of the technology has been successful, and users of the technology believe that it would have a greater impact on crime control in the years to come (Ã¢â¬Å"Facial Recognition,Ã¢â¬ 2007). The United States Department of Defense, with its focus on perfecting the face recognition technology to spot criminals at the borders of the nation, had been funding scientistsÃ¢â¬â¢ research on the technology for more than decade. Private companies were similarly convinced that the face recognition technology could help dramatically in combating crime within the borders of the United States. Because of their belief, the marketing of the technology became widespread during the mid-1990s (Rutherford). Then came 9/11 Ã¢â¬â the day that changed the security concerns of the entire world in the matter of only a few hours. There was increased interest in face recognition technology following the terrorist attacks on the American soil. Although the Americans had viewed the face recognition technology with skepticism before the attacks, they became confident that widespread use of the new technology in security as well as public safety would help protect them from similar attacks in future. Indeed, the face recognition technology could play an important role in the prevention of tragedies. All the same, law enforcement agencies have discovered that in the areas covered by the new technology, no terrorist has ever been identified. What is more, despite the redoubling of efforts to create dependable face recognition systems after 9/11, the technology suffers from problems. The facial recognition technology faces a difficulty, for example, in the recognition of the effects of aging. Digitally compared photos of individuals that had been taken eighteen months apart produced untrue rejections by the software application at least forty three percent of the time. Furthermore, it has been found that the technology is more successful when used by casinos to identify cheaters; in welfare offices; and by driverÃ¢â¬â¢s license bureaus, given the uniformity of lighting and the use of the same cameras in these places (Jarvis; OÃ¢â¬â¢Harrow, 2001). Seeing that the face recognition technology is not fool proof, albeit useful Ã¢â¬â and security experts have confirmed this Ã¢â¬â it is best to use it at the sporting event only to augment security measures. The new technology can help security personnel at the sporting event to spot terrorists, for instance. However, face recognition technology should not be considered a replacement for traditional security measures by any means. What is more, this technology is easy to use, and security personnel would not have a difficult time installing and working through the system. Hence, the use of face recognition technology at the sporting event is definitely recommended as a boost to the traditional security measures. References Face Recognition System. (2007). Wikipedia. Retrieved 25 August 2007, from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Facial_recognition_system. Facial Recognition in Action. (2007). Penton Media. Retrieved 25 August 2007, from http://govtsecurity. com/current/. Jarvis, A. Are Privacy Rights of Citizens Being Eroded Wholesale? Forensic Evidence. Retrieved 25 August 2007, from http://forensic-evidence. com/site/ID/facialrecog. html. Kautzer, C. Face Recognition Technology. ZMAG. Retrieved 25 August 2007, from http://www. zmag. org/ZMag/articles/march02kautzer. htm. OÃ¢â¬â¢Harrow, R. (2001, August 1). Matching Faces With Mug Shots. Washington Post, p. A01. Rutherford, Emelie. (2001, July 17). Facial Recognition Tech Has People Pegged. CNN. Retrieved 25 August 2007, from http://www. cnn. com/2001/TECH/ptech/07/17/face. time. idg.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
How is the concept of the conflicting perspectives represented in the texts you have studied? In your answer refer to Snow Falling on Cedars and ONE related text of your choosing A conflicting perspective is a point of view of either one or more people that is generally subjective which presents a form of opposition in opinion. The novel, Ã¢â¬ËSnow falling On CedarsÃ¢â¬â¢ composed by David Guterson in 1995 and the film Ã¢â¬ËCrashÃ¢â¬â¢ composed by Paul Haggis in 2005 represents the concept of conflicting perspectives in different ways. Both the film and the novel convey the ideas of the social, judicial and interpersonal concepts in their texts through their characters and experiences such as Ishmael Chambers in Snow falling On Cedars and Jean from Ã¢â¬ËCrashÃ¢â¬â¢. In Ã¢â¬ËSnow Falling On CedarsÃ¢â¬â¢ Guterson addresses the idea of conflicting perspectives through a court case and then relates other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s perspectives to the core plot of the novel while Ã¢â¬ËCrashÃ¢â¬â¢ tells several different stories and then melds them together. Therefore through each composerÃ¢â¬â¢s use of sub plots, setting in the strawberry fields and techniques, the concept of conflicting perspectives is represented. The novel, Snow Falling on Cedars is a crime fiction novel which reveals a story about an investigation and trial into the death of a local islander on San Piedro. The book in itself characterises many sub plots such as the relationship between Ishmael Chambers and Hatsue Imada as well as the main plot of the murder trial. Guterson uses setting as a technique in order to reinforce his representation of conflicting perspectives in the novel. One of the main conflicting perspectives which are represented in Ã¢â¬Å"snow Falling on CedarsÃ¢â¬ is the concept of racial heritage due to World War II. This is political conflict which in turn causes distress in the everyday life of the characters within the book. The racial hatred between the Japanese and the Americans fuels many of the conflicts which occur in the book including the prejudice and urged conviction of Kabuo and also separating those in society who have different opinions. The war seems to change peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ perspectives on everything and Guterson represents a latent mistrust of the different. This can be seen in the novel as the repercussions of the attack on Pearl Harbour cause minor abuse of residential Japanese Ã¢â¬ËtraitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ who are being arrested Ã¢â¬Ëin Hawaii and other places- and the FBIÃ¢â¬â¢s in on itÃ¢â¬ . Guterson represents the conflicting perspectives through the personalities of Arthur and Ishmael chambers who through their newspaper voiced reason and unbiased information over the war Ã¢â¬ËLet us rememberÃ¢â¬ ¦ hat prejudice and hatred are never right and never to be accepted by a just society (Arthur) and this caused great criticism from the fellow islanders. Ã¢â¬Å"Seems like your favouring the Japs ArtÃ¢â¬ . This can be contrasted with the characters of Etta Heine who sold off the land promised to the MiyamotoÃ¢â¬â¢s while they were in internment camp and also the boatman Dale Middleton who comments to Ishma el Ã¢â¬Ësuckers all look alikeÃ¢â¬â¢ referring to the MiyamotoÃ¢â¬â¢s. The use of the strawberry fields within the novel highlights GutersonÃ¢â¬â¢s representation of the concept of conflicting perspectives. The fields are a superficial union of all the islanders with growers, pickers and packers working off the farm and the rest of the island attending the Strawberry Festival in town each year. The strawberry field represents one of the main themes in the film which is the idea that not everything is as it seems. The fields are symbols of richness and fertility and hold a sense of beauty in the fruit it produces however, at the same time the fields are cold and bitter to work on which becomes symbolic of the characters on the island. In Ã¢â¬ËSnow Falling On CedarsÃ¢â¬â¢ there is a sub plot which revolves around the relationship of two islanders and this relationships represents the concepts of conflicting perspectives. The relationship between Ishmael Chambers and Hatsue Imada becomes highly significant as not only is the responder able to see the conflicting perspectives between Ishmael and Hatsue but also the conflicting perspectives which occur within Ishmael later in the book. Ishmael loves Hatsue and the loss of the relationship between them results in the hatred of Hatsue and a loss of compassion from Ishmael. They both have different perspectives on their relationship and therefore it was destined to fail, not only because of the racial differences but also because she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t love Ishmael. This revelation is revealed to the responder through the hidden scene in the cedar tree. Ã¢â¬ËIt came as an enormous shock to her, this knowledge, and at the same time it was something she had always known, something until now hiddenÃ¢â¬â¢. This quote also becomes quite significant as the relationship between Ishmael and Hatsue was kept a secret with their love filled meetings kept within a hollowed out cedar tree in the forest. Ultimately the idea that the relationship was kept a secret damned it because in order for their relationship to continue they need to be open about it but the relationship can only exist in secret. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ we canÃ¢â¬â¢t go out, Ishmael. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re trapped inside this treeÃ¢â¬ . The end of the book gives Ishmael the opportunity for Ishmael to resolve many of the conflicting perspectives in the novel with the evidence he discovered at the light house which would clear KabuoÃ¢â¬â¢s name. However, the personal cost to him is enormous and it takes away something in himself when he comes forward to resolve it. The use of the cedar trees within the novel becomes an important technique when considering the representation of the concepts of conflict in the novel. The cedar tree is a place where Ishmael and Hatsue are able to pursue their relationship because it offers them a place away from cultural values and rules and gives them the opportunity to pursue their feelings. The tree offers them a protection from the realities of the outside world. The tree, like the strawberry fields is a symbol of tenderness and beauty. The tree however is hollow and has something missing and this becomes symbolic of HatsueÃ¢â¬â¢s and IshmaelÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship because it signifies that it was never meant to be and that there was something missing from their relationship. It was hollow. The tree is symbolic of the twoÃ¢â¬â¢s love as this is the place where they lose their virginity to each other. However, moments after this takes place Hatsue asks Ishmael to pull out as she feels that their relationship is over. She does not love him. The cedar tree is as much of a symbol of IshmaelÃ¢â¬â¢s love as it is of HatsueÃ¢â¬â¢s love in cultural blood. The film, Ã¢â¬ËCrashÃ¢â¬â¢ composed by Paul Haggis in 2005 represents the concept of conflicting perspectives. At the beginning of the film the responder watches several different characters in different sub plots creating several different stories which have no correlation to each other. As the film progresses the several different sub plots begin to meld into one and ultimately revolve around a single car crash. The film Ã¢â¬ËCrashÃ¢â¬â¢ displays several different meanings of conflicting perspectives from the point of view of different characters and then displays how these perspectives can change when subjected to different experiences. This can be seen through the character of Jean who due to a car-jacking earlier in the film, has a conflicting perspective on race. This perspective becomes ironic in that she feel that Ã¢â¬ËwhitesÃ¢â¬â¢ are more superior and do not commit themselves to such abhorred acts as that of coloured people. However when she takes a fall within her own home and none of her Ã¢â¬ËwhiteÃ¢â¬â¢ friends come to help her, it is in fact her Hispanic maid Maria who helps her. The responder is able to see the change in Jeans perspective when she comments to her maid Maria Ã¢â¬Å"youÃ¢â¬â¢re the best friend IÃ¢â¬â¢ve gotÃ¢â¬ . This can be related to the character of Ishmael in Ã¢â¬ËSnow Falling on CedarsÃ¢â¬â¢ as he too changes his perspective towards the end of the novel when he discovers evidence which could change the course of his ex-lovers husbands court trial. The 12th chapter in Ã¢â¬ËCrashÃ¢â¬â¢, Protect and Serve, captures the films essence of the representation of conflicting perspectives where two characters, Officer Ryan and Christine are forced into a situation where they are both forced to face their conflicting perspectives towards each other. In the beginning of the film, Officer Ryan assaults Christine, a black women based on his external conflict of racial prejudice. Scene 12 Ã¢â¬Å"Protect and ServeÃ¢â¬ forces both characters to acknowledge their conflicting perspectives, giving them the opportunity to resolve this as Christine is trapped in her overturned car and Officer Ryan tries to free her. The scene uses several pan shots, non- dijectic and music sounds to create a surreal sense, as though the crash is a dream. This becomes important as the Haggis transforms the surreal sense to an immediate and high risk situation using mis-en-scene to create the emergency of the situation. As Officer Ryan reaches the car, the responder is able to see a series of shots which show the scene from not only Officer RyanÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, but also ChristineÃ¢â¬â¢s. This scene forces Christine to face her internal conflicting view of Officer Ryan as an abuser screaming Ã¢â¬Å"no, not you. Anyone but youÃ¢â¬ at him when she realises who he is. The idea that Christine is ultimately forced to face her internal conflicts by accepting Officer Ryan can also be seen in the novel Snow Falling on Cedars as Ishmael is forced to face his internal conflict in order to be able to present the evidence to save her husband, Kabuo from conviction. Overall the 1995 novel, Ã¢â¬ËSnow Falling on CedarsÃ¢â¬â¢ and the 2005 film, Ã¢â¬ËCrashÃ¢â¬â¢ represents the concept of conflicting perspectives through the use of characters, setting and technique. The use of the characters Ishmael, Jean and Christine creates conflicting perspectives within themselves outlining how perspective are created and changed throughout the course of the text. Therefore In Ã¢â¬ËSnow Falling on cedarsÃ¢â¬â¢ composed by David Guterson and Ã¢â¬ËCrashÃ¢â¬â¢ composed by Paul Haggis the concept of conflicting perspectives is represented.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Exploring Customer Attitude - Essay Example The pilot study will be undertaken to capture the attitude of a convenient sample in and around Hertfordshire, where Playful Times Toys which will be representative of the companies population. Both qualitative and quantitative techniques will be used. In the qualitative categories, in depth interviews of about 25 existing channel partners of the acquired company will be undertaken using the semi-structured interview technique. In the quantitative category, questionnaires will be administered both physically and using internet to about 500 potential customers comprising parents and grandparents of kids. The qualitative data will be analysed using subjective, interpretative techniques. The quantitative data will be analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques such as hypothesis testing, Chi-square testing, analysis of variance, correlational studies, and regression analysis. Subsequently conclusions will be drawn and recommendations will be made. 2. Introduct ion 2.1 Background Playful Times ToysÃ¢â¬â¢ decision to move away from the electronic toy market to traditional wooden toy market and consequent acquisition of a company that specialised in production of traditional wooden toys necessitated a market research to develop suitable promotional programme aimed at the potential customers in the wooden toys market. The research is significant for Playful Times Toys as the acquired company specialised in production of wooden building blocks, farmyard animals, train sets, and other vehicles for children aged 2-10. The company marketed these products on the basis of their perceived educational value. Playful Times Toys intention to develop promotional programmes aimed at the parents and grandparents customer segment signs a departure from its own and that of the acquired companyÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing experience and infrastructure. 2.2 Overview of toy market Toy market is dependent on two factors (1) the number of children, and (2) gross domest ic product (GDP), which would enable to purchase. Usually toy products are categorised under 11 categories as (1) action figures & accessories; (2) arts & crafts; (3) building sets; (4) dolls; (5) games & puzzles; (6) infant/preschool toys; (7) youth electronics; (8) outdoor & sports toys; (9) plush; (10) vehicles; and (11) all other toys. WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s toy market can be divided into two categories (1) 0 to 14 years old, and (2) 15 + years based on based on the GDP/Inhabitant. 2.2.1 Top toy markets of the world In 2007, European region was the largest market with 32 per cent market share, closely followed by North American region with 31 per cent market share, while the Asiatic region accounted for 24 per cent market share. Latin America and the Caribbean markets accounted for 7 per cent, African region 4 per cent and the Oceania accounted for 2 per cent of the global market share. However, by the end of 2008, the Asiatic market grew by three per cent whereas both North American an d European markets registered decline. Latin American and the Caribbean markets grew by 1 per cent. The composition of world toy market by region is placed in the figure below. Figure 1: World toy market by region Ã¢â¬â 2008 Source: Guinaudeau, P., 2009. Toy Markets in the World. [Online] The NPD Group (2009 Edition) Available
Thursday, September 26, 2019
United States Military Actions Without Congressional Declaration of War - Essay Example The U.S. has the ability to invade a country simply because it can and not because it is the option of last resort. Prior to the Korean War, the government used military force only when necessary so as to protect the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s vital interests. Many times since that era the policy makersÃ¢â¬â¢ characterization of Ã¢â¬Ëvital interestsÃ¢â¬â¢ has been flawed yet U.S. military involvement was always justified in this manner. Beginning with the Korean War, the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s vital interests were no longer the measure by which to initiate military action. For example, the first President Bush committed forces to Somalia in the early 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s to be part of a United Nations humanitarian mission but public support quickly evaporated when the American soldiers began dying. President Clinton sent troops to the Balkans which proved to be successful because it caused minimal U.S. casualties while achieving political objectives. This conflict showed that the American public will tolerate military intervention even when not presented as protecting vital interests but only if it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t cost a great deal of Americans lives. Somalia was a failure but military actions in the Balkans, Haiti, Panama and the first Gulf War have evidently encouraged the United States to initiate military action without any foundation in reason or common sense. The U.S. can overwhelm most other nations militarily, but successful foreign relations and global political objectives are made more complicated and less likely if the military is continually used for dubious purposes (Larson, 1996). The instances of misused military power over the past half century have escalated in the past 15 years which has caused an ever-widening credibility deficit for the U.S. Now, more than ever, it is vital that the U.S. formulate a reasonable policy which dictates the specific guidelines for engaging in foreign military operations. Within this policy, American interests should always be
MKTG 3000 - Essay Example This paper briefly analyses the marketing strategies I might have used to market iphone, if I was the brand manager. Some customers give more importance to the brand rather the product. Apple is currently the most reputed and valued technological brand in the world according to Kim (2010). Moreover apple products are selling rapidly all over the world because of the huge brand value of Apple Company. Brand images construct some symbols in the minds of the customers which help the movement of the product in the market. Even without testing or watching the demo, some people purchase Apple products because of their immense confidence and trust in the abilities of Apple. Under such circumstances, I was the brand manager; I would capitalize more on the brand value of Apple while marketing iphone directly to consumers. Most of the consumers in the world are still unaware of the fact that Apple has surpassed even Microsoft in market capitalization and brand value. Ã¢â¬Å"The amount of effort a consumer puts into searching depends on a number of factors such as the market, product characteristics, consumer characteristics etcÃ¢â¬ (Perner). Market is overcrowded with millions of products of same and different natures which made the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s task more difficult in selecting a suitable product for them. In such circumstances, they will put their trust on brands rather than the products. Many of the consumers are still unaware of the fact that Apple became the most reputed technological company in the world. Moreover, they surpassed even Microsoft in market capitalization. In short, iphone advertising should convey all the above messages to the consumers. The iPhoneÃ¢â¬â¢s functions can be easily accessed through a touch screen display using mainly by the finger commands. The picture quality (25,000 pixels per inch) of iphone is one among the bests in the category of new generation mobile phones. Moreover its display brightness can be adjusted automatically and the
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Understanding positive environment for student learning and professional collaboration - Research Paper Example lsÃ¢â¬â¢ management towards creation of a positive environment but also helped in understanding the relationship between good instruction, assessment, and collaboration. The interviews with administrators, teachers, and parents helped in understanding the vision and concerns of these stakeholders regarding positive environments. At the end of the project, a walkthrough was also conducted the purpose of which was to get an insight into the importance of positive environment and collaboration for students and teachers respectively. In educational sector, the most important thing that matters for all stakeholders is a positive learning environment. The reason is that positive environment promotes enhanced learning and collaboration for students and teachers respectively. A positive learning environment is not restricted to any particular stakeholder, rather includes all stakeholders who have a specific role to play in improving instruction, collaboration, and assessment areas. Students need a positive environment to show improved performances not only in classrooms but also in the play grounds. Similarly, teachers need a positive environment where they can provide education to learners in interactive way using latest educational technologies and equipment. Along with students and teachers, the role of parents cannot be ignored by any means because parents are highly concerned about the environment in which they send their children to learn. Parents are one of the main stakeholders of any educational institute b ecause they are directly concerned with the schools performances of their children. Therefore, the role of teachers, students, and parents is equally important in moving towards the cause of creating a positive learning and collaboration environment at schools. A positive learning environment has some key characteristics that make it an essential element in the success of an educational institute. For example, a positive learning environment is one that reflects
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Article review - Essay Example The author also makes suggestions on how corporations can do something about this dissatisfaction. John Baldoni (2010) states that during his work presentations there was a time when he discovered eight out of ten workers were not content with their employment. Although the Great Recession made employees stick to their jobs, their dissatisfaction did not go away and new research manifested the fact. (Baldoni, 2010) Workers complained of being overworked, underpaid and underappreciated. The article continues with the research showing six out of ten workers wanting to leave the company. Baldoni goes on further to explain that managers must face the fact that their employees are not pleased. Also, as proven by research, quite a number do not trust upper management thinking that the ones in the higher up do not have as many sacrifices as those in the lower ranks. Ultimately, managers should remember that unhappy workers are unproductive ones and thus steps should be taken to make improve the workersÃ¢â¬â¢ disposition. There were three suggestions were made in the article for making work more tolerable for employees. The first one was to address the situation. Baldoni hints that most employers try to ignore the fact that the problem exists. This should not be the case. He encourages employers to try and find out why there is a problem. Asking employees outright is also not a good tactic, Baldoni states, as this would make employees be afraid to tell the truth. A private company resorted to conducting a survey after a number of its professional staff submitted their resignations. (Von Achen, 2010) The results showed that insufficient training and support, infrequent performance feedback and workload issues were the reasons the workers at this company wanted change. The next step Baldoni wrote is to encourage alternatives. He suggests to work together with the employees in making improvements to the
Monday, September 23, 2019
The Primacy of the Fifth Discipline - Research Paper Example With globalization and modern technology prying the world open to all, change has happened and grown so fast that business has to move faster than change to be ahead and stay in front of the competition. But moving faster would mean discarding old habits and practices because of fiercer competition and advances in technology. It is no longer practicable to be following the same old procedures. What is needed, according to Garvin (2008), is a new attitude or a new posture towards learning. What is needed, add Kouzes and Posner (1991), is a new model fit for the world. What is needed is a learning organization (Senge, 1990). ...Hence, his advocacy for the adoption or the mastery of the five disciplines of learning organizations. Systems Thinking. Systems thinking is a theoretical framework that views business and human activity as parts of a larger network, and which are in fact, in themselves, made up of such different parts that are interconnected to form a whole. Systems thinking is the cornerstone of SengeÃ¢â¬â¢s (1990) five disciplines, putting the other four in an interconnected web or network to produce a learning and dynamic organization. Senge suggests the adoption of this systems framework as a frame of mind in order to solve complex problems caused by the actions and reactions of different parts against each other. Systems thinking in effect advocates viewing the whole rather than the individual parts. Personal Mastery. Even as Senge pushes strongly for a macro-view of things, he does not abandon the examination of the individual parts. In fact, he recommends the development of the individual to the point of his maximum proficiency so he can exhibit his best self in his chosen craft. Senge admonishes the individual member of the organization to never lose the initiative and the desire to be a learning individual in order to gain such mastery. He suggests for the individual to continually clarify and deepen his personal vision and focus his energies t owards bringing out his full potential as a member of his organization. Senge thinks that for this personal mastery to be developed as a discipline, it must be encouraged, and in fact facilitated, by the organization by creating an environment where the individual can fully develop.
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Retail Management Essay What can an independent retailer learn from this case? An independent retailer can pull several insights from this reading. First and foremost the market is becoming severely competitive which means that independent retailers will have to adapt to the environment. Adaptations such as; benchmarking other retailers, pinpointing customer needs wants, developing a long-term strategy for adaptation are to be made. It is imperative that retailers find ways to draw-in and maintain customers by changing with the market. Soft line specialty stores have found that the recent economic downturn has hurt the industry and in turn created intense competition for retailers to find new ways to get more sales from existing customers. Some good ideas for retailers to consider after reading this case are, repositioning old images, continuing to target the youth market, and creating a life cycle of retailing whereas, when a customer outgrows a particular brand, you have another brand for the consumer to grow into. There are also many ways that our ever-advancing technology can be incorporated into retailing to aid companies in increasing revenues.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Analysis of the UN with Liberalism and Realism Use Realism and Liberalism to Explain the United Nations system. Introduction Realism emphasizes the condition on politics imposed by human nature and the non-existent of international government. Together, they conceded international relations largely a realm of power and interest (Jack, 2000), and liberalism came under the influence of various intellectuals minds and believed that state and non-state actors are partner in the development process and based on democratic principles of a peaceful international order (Aneek, 2010). Thus, realism is a power theory to achieve objectives, and liberalism is balance power which appeared to be more optimistic and cooperative of nation-states. The existence of the United Nations in the international arena seems to become complexity argumentative. Its effectiveness is being constantly put under debates, with realists and liberals arguing in favor or against it, respectively. The United Nations emerged on 24 October, 1945, which is an international organization maintaining the world peace and security, and the key function of the United Nations is also to develop friendly relations, international economic, social, cultural problems, and so on. The realistsÃ¢â¬â¢ emphasis on anarchy, it does not mean that they see the international system is falling into chaotic. On the contrary, liberally, they point to balance the power of actor in international affairs, as a source of order in the international system. Therefore, which one of the two ideologies is appropriated to explain the world politics in the world of 21st century? This term paper aims to answer two important questions of how Realism and Liberalism explain the UN system. By using the secondary data, mostly from research papers of scholars in the United State, England, Germany, and other discussed articles, the two theories: Realism and Liberalism are being used to explain the United Nation system by focusing on the actors of the UN and their interactions. This paper also aims to answer the research question on which one of them best describes the UN system by using our groupÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions. Realism to explain the United Nations The Chair of P5Ã¢â¬â¢s power and right in UNSC Security Council in United Nations is composed of both permanent and non-permanent, elective members and headed by a president, an office that rotates among all member state. The permanent members include the P5 who are the great-victor of the World War II, while ten elected member are selected form and by the UNGA. The P5 possesses an absolute veto power over substantive UNSC decision and allows one member to kill UNSC actions, and could not be overridden. The current debate among governments about the right of veto resembles very much the debate. Many governments oppose the veto for its violation of the principle of sovereign equality among states (Bardo, 1998). For example, an outbreak of a chemical weapons attack carried out by the Syrian regime in 2013 and has heightened tensions internationally, but Russia and China who are the permanent members of UNSC do continue to support a regime. To Russia, there are two main reasons that led to Russia support to Syria because of Economic that Russia is the one of SyriaÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest arms suppliers and one other is that RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s key policy goal is blocking the U.SÃ¢â¬â¢s action to shape the region. For China, has said foreign countries shouldnt meddle in Syrias internal affairs (Holly, 2013). In this case, to realist Russia and China are one of veto in UNSC agenda; they have played a vital role to support and veto the U.S to take any actions on the Syria for promote the security and human rights as pretenses. StateÃ¢â¬â¢s Power and Interests To illustrate the strong involvement of the UNSC in some crisis that related to realism, Gulf crisis was the good one example to explain. We have to take a look on the resolutions of UN, but there were very soon doubts whether this was a real revival of UN that would be able to solve in the same manner future conflicts. Therefore, the goals of the U.S-Administration in the Middle East changed but the conditions, the allies and the possibilities to realize the interest of U.S were still in flow. After the end of the cold war, Iraqi aggression towards Kuwait, were one of the most remarkable points for revision of means and possibilities in order to create an interest for U.S- strategy. For the U.S administration the unity of the UN, made perfect by ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s decision not to oppose any step against Iraq, brought a big chance to counter the Iraqi aggression under the umbrella of the UN. Here we can see that UN acted as tools for U.S to invade the other country (Stephan, 2006). To co nclude, Realism with its emphasis on security completion and war among the great powers, as human being is thinking about self-interests more than others. Those permanents members in United Nations Security Council are also no exception. Accordingly, United Nations activities were largely shaped by national interests, values and power despite the UN being central to the maintenance of a viable international order and to the development of shared values, norms and standards (Suzanne, 2013). To realist powerful states as permanent members on UNSC rarely need International Organization as United Nations to achieve specific objectives. On the contrary, since turning to an international institution complicate policy-making and entails some loss of autonomy, the powerful to avoid such entanglements, especially in the pursuit of important national interests. Yet this is often not the case: even superpowers routinely channel coercion, including the use of force, through International Organizations despite viable alternatives that offer more flexibility and control-namely, unilateralism and ad hoc coalitions (Alexander, 2009). Liberalism explaining the United Nation system Liberal View of International Law International society consist of states that have, less or more, relations with one another. This relations form an international order which require the international law to create rules. By regulating the states, International law seeks to achieve the goal and value of international society. From liberal perspectives to international law view that international order is created from the bottom up. The processes that contribute to creation of international law begin with norms, moral, rules, and other code of conduct that voluntarily adopted by individual, community, and/or state who operate in an international society and working up through transnational and transgovernmental law to traditional public international law. The liberal approach ensure to avoid the state-centric power by keeping the state disciplined and provide the peaceful way to build the relations with one another. Mostly, International law was created to solve problem in relationship between states. Liberalists believe that those international problems have domestic roots. When individual and group preference different from the government preference the problem would likely to arise. The relation between state and society have a massive impact on international system, so the international law lie in domestic rule of law. Liberal view on Economic Interdependent The liberalists believe that economic interdependent leads to peaceful international relations because they understand the mutual benefit of trade. When the trade prosper, the tied between states are bond with economic dependency. In liberal states, military security is never always the most important point on the state agenda anyway. Economic interdependent increase the value of trade over war, so they interdependent state would prefer trade. Generally, war cost so much of the state resource, while trade gain material benefit. Those economic gains have a huge influence on the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy toward other state. It also influence the state decision to use military force. The differences between the world today and before World War II would owe to the contribution of the development of technologies which help facilitate the trading process between states. Back then, war seems to be the only means to gain interest, so the war could easily happen. But now, inexpensive fast, and reliable communication and transportation enable people to trade and gain interest, so people would prioritize trade over war. Sovereignty and equality International institutions and Laws have become more intrusive, while transnational civil society have become more active, and the central power of state have become less pronounced. This is the process of globalization. It have challenged state to compete with supranational, private, and local actor for the authority over the territory which used to be exclusively under the authority of state. Inequality is a serious problem for international system, especially in the United Nation, that has been wrongly neglected. As inequality intensified, state sovereignty would be in danger, if the United Nation fail to manage the world order. In international arena, normally, developing states are the weakest if we compare them to the developed state who long to exploit the developing state. The unite nation provides equal footing with the powerful state in many of the organs. As the policy making organ of the UN, United Nation General Assembly allow each state to have the power of equal vote and have a saying in un policy making process. One state one vote apply to all the member of the UN, regardless. Small states form groups to have the bargain power to achieve true multilateral world order. For example, the group of 77 was created with to promote the collective economic interest of developing states and improve the negotiating capacity in the United Nation. With now expanded to 13 3 members, the G77 play important roles to make sure that the resource in UN would equally applied to all the member. They have the collective power to set agenda to achieve the developing states interest rather than allow the developed state dominant in the Unite Nation system. Social and economic equality are protected by international law and institution who responsible for establishing a framework for economic cooperation and development for both developed state and developing state, equally. For the obvious example would be IMF and the World Bank. Analysis of Realism and Liberalism Regarding the emphasis on key actors and conceptions of Realism and Liberalism, each has its own strength and weakness in explaining the actors in UN system and their interactions. For realistÃ¢â¬â¢s view on states that they are the principal actors in the international system is somehow true. These can explain the UN system as its actor sought own interest and that the UN is just a marginal actor states can use for achieving its objective through ways including by using the UN to legitimate its actions, using veto power, contributing or reluctance of assisting the UN operation, and so on. In addition, it emphasizes on anarchy that state has its own interest and acquires as much as power through any means, particularly by competing with other states. Notably, realist concepts hold the principle of zero-sum game that has and will create a competitive future. Such competition is the impetus for state to balance the power and further implies that the international system is anarchic a nd conflictual which likely go to conflicts and wars (John, n.d.). However, it fails to explain the modern international system that economics is important. For instance, the Soviet leaders realized that pursuit of power cannot totally enhance the state security and believed that to cooperate with the west is the best way to achieve it (John, n.d.). Therefore, we can see that the Soviet Union since 1987 has changed its attitude in the UN by deterring from using its veto power for opposing the West to withdraw its troops from Afganistan, and end the Iraq-Iran War (Karen Margaret, n.d.). Further, Realism cannot explain how the UN can ensure peace and security in some cases by preventing interstate conflicts and explain why states come to cooperate one another in international organization and many regional integration to solve world conflicts and transnational problems. This is showing that state is no more anarchic but cooperative, and that non-state actors, in particular multi-diplomacy appears to be important in the international system. For instance, in the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, leaders of states were persuade to join with other nations to halt the destruction of natural resources and ensure the healthy planet for next generation (Ã¢â¬Å"TheWorldConferences,Ã¢â¬ 1997). However, liberalism can explain those that realism cannot. By not ignoring the emphasis on power of Realism, Liberalism seems to be very optimistic as the morality, ideology, emotion, cooperation are improved over Realism as the factors that shape the behavior and preference of states. It also doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t dismiss the national interests that states processes, but the interest for Liberalist is achieved by working together with other states through concerts and multilateralism rather than competing. In addition, instead of zero-sum game principle, Liberalism stressed more on win-win situation and this can further implies that liberalists tent to go to war less than realists. Liberalists also found it more effective to tie together politically and socially through trade, economics, and other exchange through international law and cope with democratic peace. However, it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that liberalist doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t at all use force; force is used for self-defense and especially i n case authorized by the UN as Woodrow Wilson send the American troops to Europe in efforts to make the world safe and as in case George W. Bush invade Iraq in part to foster democracy and peace (John, n.d.). These shows that UN has been a great place for cooperation among states, truly serving peace and security that is generally defined as the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s national interest, and it appears that liberalism can better explain the UN system and today worldÃ¢â¬â¢s politics. References Jack, D. (2000). Realism and International Relations. England: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. Aneek, C. (2010). International Relations Today: Concepts and Applications. India: Dorling Kindersley Pvt. Ltd Bardo, F. (1998). UN Security Council Reform and the Right of Veto: A Constitutional Perspective. The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International. Holly, Y. (2013, August 30). Syria allies: Why Russia, Iran and China are standing by the regime. Retrieved from website: http://edition.cnn.com/2013/08/29/world/meast/syria-iran-china-russia-supporters/ Stephan, S. (2006). Gulf War II (1990/91) -Iraq between United NationsÃ¢â¬â¢ Diplomacy and United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ Policy. Germany: GRIN Verlag. Suzanne, X. Y. (2013). China in UN Security Council decision-making on Iraq. Publisher: Routledge. Alexander, T. (2009). Channels of Power: The UN Security Council and U.S. Statecraft in Iraq. The United State: Cornell University Press. John, T. (n.d.). International Politics on the World State (12th ed.). Boston: Mc Graw Hill. John, J. (n.d.). Realism, the Real World, And the Academy. Retrieved from the website: http://mearsheimer.uchicago.edu/pdfs/A0029.pdf Karen, A. W., Margaret, P. K. (n.d.). The United Nations in the Post-Cold War Era (2nd ed.). George, A. L., Dilemmas In World Politics. Colorado: Westview Press. The World Conferences. (1997, May 23). Earth Summit: UN Conference on Environment and Development (1992) [Electronic Version]. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/geninfo/bp/enviro.html
Friday, September 20, 2019
Effect of the Outdoors on Mental Health Topic: Mental Health Big Ideas Overview Mental health disorders are known to affect most people at some point in their lives (Government Office of Science London 2008, as cited in Barton 2010). Indeed, rates of depression and other psychological illnesses (e.g. anxiety, etc.) are predicted to increase in the future (Maller et al. 2005, as cited in DFH 2008). Over the past several decades, research has shown that contact with nature aids mental health and restoration. Mental health improvements resulting from exposure to natural environments include increased positive emotions and mood, decreased negative emotions and stress, and increased mental balance, energy, and revitalization. Systematic literature reviews conducted in the past five years continue to show a consistent beneficial relationship between exposure to green, natural environments and mental health. Environmental contexts examined in these studies varied from urban to rural, and compared natural and synthetic environments. Exposure to natural environments might include exercising in natural environments, being within a natural place, or even looking at a view of trees from a window. For example, in a hospital, views of nature are associated with a faster recovery, decreased painkiller use, shorter hospital stays and fewer postoperative complications (Dijkstra 2006). Outdoor space and views at a workplace is associated with decreased stress (Singhal, Paney and Pandy 2013). Regular interaction with nature is connected to lengthened lifespan and decreased risk of mental health illnesses in seniors living in megacities (Takano 2002, as cited in Barton 2010). There is also mixed evidence that exercising outdoors in natural environments could have mental and physical benefits above and beyond exercising indoors. Green exercise for as little as 5 minutes has been shown to improve self-esteem and mood (Barton 2010). There is some evidence that people enjoy exercising outdoors more than indoors, and have a greater intention to repeat the activity, and improvement in social connections (Coon et al 2011). If exercising outdoors is more likely to be maintained in the long term, then motivating people to be active outdoors (e.g. gardening, walking, and biking) could be an important means of staying active. If exposure to outdoor green spaces has immediate positive mental health outcomes, then inaccessibility to such spaces could promote health inequalities. Given the associations between mental health and proximity to green spaces, there is an inherent opportunity for planning and designing both public and private open space. What the Research Says Things for Certain (or semi-Certain) Exposure to green outdoor spaces improves mental health. Examples: Barton and Pretty, 2010: The article concluded that exposure to green has positive health impacts. Coon et. Al, 2011, 1762: Ã¢â¬Å"Experimental research has demonstrated that exposure to views of nature can improve peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s health and wellbeing by providing restoration from stress and mental fatigue,12Ã¢â¬ Design for Health, 2007, 1: Ã¢â¬Å"A strong research base has continued to demonstrate how direct contact with nature (water, trees, bushes, flowers, and other vegetation, whether cultivated or wild) leads to increased mental health and psychological development.Ã¢â¬ Lee, A.C.K., R. Maheswaran, 2010, 212: Ã¢â¬Å"Physical and psychological benefits have been linked to green spaces through their purported effects on physical activity.7 Ã¢â¬ ¦It also improves mental functioning, mental health and wellbeing16Ã¢â¬â 22 and may have long-lasting psychological benefits.23 Benefits on longevity have also been reported.24Ã¢â¬ Even just a view of nature is beneficial to mental health. Examples: Design for Health, 2007: For example, in a hospital context views of nature are associated with a faster recovery, decreased painkiller use, shorter hospital stays and fewer post-operative complications. Since older persons use hospitals more, views of nature are especially relevant to this population. Dijkstra, 2006: Sunlight and views of nature out the window had positive effects on patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ mental and physical health. Having a sunny window with a view of nature may have a positive impact on aging patients staying at healthcare facilities. It should be noted that some varied effects happened for patients with dementia or depression. Singhal, Paney and Pandy, 2013: Green space surrounding a work environment reduces stress and benefits mental health. This has been demonstrated consistently in the literature, and anecdotally in this article. Things up in the Air General significance for public health. Example: Bowler, 2012: Overall, the studies are suggestive that natural environments may have direct and positive impacts on well-being, but support the need for investment in further research on this question to understand the general significance for public health. If greater biodiversity in nature increases mental health benefits. Example: Dean, van Dooren and Weinstein, 2011, 878-879: Ã¢â¬Å"Based upon this review, we identified only one original research paper that directly investigated the link between biodiversity per se and mental health allowing the authors to specifically argue that their results Ã¢â¬Ëindicate that successful management of urban green spaces should emphasize biological complexity to enhance human well-being in addition to biodiversity conservation ([33, p. 390]).Ã¢â¬ How different user groups, subcultures and types of outdoor environments differ in impact. Example: Design for Health, 2007: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ more limited knowledge on aspects of nature most relevant, maintenance importance, and different user groups/subcultures. Varied definitions and types of outdoor space make it difficult to compare studies.Ã¢â¬ Whether there is a causal relationship between green space and mental health. Example: Lee, 2010, 212: Ã¢â¬Å"Most studies reported findings that generally supported the view that green space have a beneficial health effect. Establishing a causal relationship is difficult, as the relationship is complex. Simplistic urban interventions may therefore fail to address the underlying determinants of urban health that are not remediable by landscape redesign.Ã¢â¬ If exercising outdoors (or with a view of nature) has mental and physical benefits above and beyond exercising indoors. Examples: Coon et al., 2011: found exercising outdoors did have greater mental and physical benefits above and beyond exercising indoors, whereas Lee 2010 found mixed results at best. Implications Standards Mental health benefits can come from very little exposure to natural spaces. Just a glimpse of green will do. Example: Design for Health, 2007, 5: Ã¢â¬Å"Working thresholds for HIA: Provide views of green spaces, with canopy trees, from all buildings. These can be trees at the street level or, for upper-level situations, views to parklands, etc. Tree densities with greater than 22 trees per acre have a positive effect in terms of presence and sense of safety in a population of low-income, public housing residents (Kuo et al., 1998, 45). This is not a very high density of trees.Ã¢â¬ As little as 5-minutes of activity outside is enough for mental health improvements. Example: Barton and Pretty, 2010: A quantifiable exposure to green was set as a threshold. As a result, greatest changes come from 5 min of activity, and thus suggest these psychological measures are immediately increased by green exercise. Insights Exercising outdoors may be easier to stick to than exercising indoors. Example: Coon et. Al, 2011, 1762: It might be argued that physical activity in health club gyms is a viable alternative to outdoor exercise, but the failure to persevere with indoor exercise initiatives on a long-term basis is well recognized. For example, 40-50% of individuals terminate gym membership within a year of joining.19 Anecdotal evidence suggests that long-term adherence to exercise initiatives conducted in outdoor natural environments or urban green spaces may be superior to that of indoor exercise interventions.20 Urban Chinese migrants have worse mental health than non-migrants. Example: Lin et al., 2011: Rural migrants in ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s cities experience more discrimination and this discrimination is connected to worse mental health. Sources Jo Barton and Jules Pretty, What is the Best Dose of Nature and Green Exercise for ImprovingÃ Mental Health? A Multi-Study Analysis, Environmental Science and Technology, 2010 MayÃ 15;44(10):3947-55. doi: 10.1021/es903183r. Bowler, Diana E., et al. A systematic review of evidence for the added benefits to health ofÃ exposure to natural environments. BMC Public Health 10.1 (2010): 456. Coon, J. Thompson, K. Boddy, K. Stein, R. Whear, J. Barton, and M.H. Depledge. 2011. Ã¢â¬Å"DoesÃ Participating in Physical Activity in Outdoor Natural Environments Have a Greater Effect onÃ Physical and Mental Wellbeing than Physical Activity Indoors? A Systematic Review.Ã¢â¬ Ã Environmental Science and Technology 45:1761-1772. Accessed February 20, 2014. doi: 10.1021/es102947t. Dean, Julie, Kate van Dooren, Philip Weinstein. 2011. Ã¢â¬Å"Does biodiversity improve mental healthÃ in urban settings?Ã¢â¬ Medical Hypotheses 76: 877-880. Accessed February 20, 2014. doi:Ã 10.1016/j.mehy.2011.02.040. Design for Health. 2007. Key Questions: Mental Health. Version 2.0. www.designforhealth.net Dijkstra, Karin, Marcel Pieterse, and Ad Pruyn. 2006. Ã¢â¬Å"Physical environmental stimuli that turnÃ healthcare facilities into healing environments through psychologically mediated effects:Ã systematic review.Ã¢â¬ Journal of Advanced Nursing 56 (2): 166-181. Accessed February 20,Ã 2014. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.03990.x Lee, A.C.K., R. Maheswaran. 2010. Ã¢â¬Å"The Health Benefits of Urban Green Space: A Review of theÃ Evidence.Ã¢â¬ Journal of Public Health 33(2): 212-222. Accessed February 21, 2014. doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdq068. Lin, Danhua, Xiaoming Li, Bo Wang, Yan Hong, Xiaoyi Fang, Xiong Qin, and Bonita Stanton. 2011.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Discrimination, Perceived Social Inequity, and Mental Health Among Rural-to-UrbanÃ Migrants in China.Ã¢â¬ Community Mental Health Journal 47:171-180. Accessed February 21,Ã 2014. doi:10.1007/s10597-009-9278-4. Singhal, Vijai, Deep Pandey and Pushp Deep Pandey. 2013. Ã¢â¬Å"Workplace Green Space for HealthÃ and Happiness.Ã¢â¬ Rajasthan State Pollution Control Board, Jaipur India.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Karl Marx was born on May 5, 1818, in Trier, Prussia. He attended the university of Bonn and later the university at Berlin, where he studied in law, while majoring in history and philosophy. After his education, Marx associated himself with the "Left Hegelians," along with Bruno Bauer, which were a group who formed atheistic and revolutionary ideas from Hegel's philosophy. The Young Hegelians practiced philosophical idealism. Here he first meet Arnold Ruge and Ludwig Feuerbach. In 1842 Marx and Bruno Bauer were asked to contribute to the Rheinische Zeitung, a German paper, in Cologne. At the time Marx started, the paper had only 400 subscribers. Marx in October of 1842, became editor-in-chief, and decided to move from Bonn to Cologne. As the paper became more and more revolutionary and widely read, the government decided to censor, and eventually suppress it. The paper was banned in March of 1843. At this time, it had more than 3,400 subscribers from all over Germany. Karl Marx was married to his childhood friend Jenny von Westphalen, in 1843. Later in the fall of that year Marx along with another Left Hegelian, Arnold Ruge, moved to Paris and began publication of a radical journal entitled Deutsch-Franzosische Jahrbucher. Due to the problems in publishing such a radical paper, only one issue appeared. Karl met his closest friend in September of 1844, when Frederick Engels arrived in Paris. Together they participated in the activities of many revolutionary communities. They formed the theory and ideas of revolutionary proletarian socialism, also known as communism. Also in 1844, Marx wrote a revolutionary book called the Holy Family. It is a materialist view of the history of man. Basically, it was a critique on his former philosophy group, "The Young Hegelians." It expressed the view of history being mans activities. "Ã¢â¬ËHistory' is not, as it were, a person apart, using man as a means to achieve its own aims; history is nothing but the activity of man pursuing his own aims." Finally in 1845 Marx was banished from Paris as a dangerous revolutionary. He wrote satirical poems for revolutionary-democrats. The paper, "VorwÃ ¤rts", was attack by reactionary papers asking for government banning or censorship, but instead they banned Marx from Paris. He decided to head for Brussels, where he and Engels joined, in 1847,... ...pital is placed on exploitation of wage labor. Marx discovered the fact that it is not labor itself, but labor power that is the commodity which the worker sells and the capitalist purchases. This is the key discovery for the connection for the determination of the commodity value by labor. Capital also establishes two main points. The first is that the capitalist can increase the rate of surplus value by prolonging the working day. This is absolute surplus value. The second is by increasing the intensity of the working day. This is relative surplus value. Marx covers every aspect of capitalist economy, and depicts every flaw. Though never completed, it is the work of his life time. On December 2, 1881, His lifelong wife passed away. Marx's health declined due to his strenuous work with the International and the Capital. And just more than a year later Karl Marx died peacefully at his home. Both were buried at Highgate Cemetery in London, where they still lie today. Marx has affected nearly all aspects, whether it be economy, politics, natural science, Darwinism, or even philosophy. His impacts have positively changed the world even still today, Marx's ingenious all around us.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Honest Iago of Othello Ã Ã Ã To most of the world William Shakespeare is recognized as the greatest dramatist in history.Ã His plays have been performed for centuries through various interpretations.Ã Shakespeare's vast knowledge, and writing style made his works interesting for both the intellectual, and the illiterate.Ã One of these styles is the use of motifs, which is seen extensively in Othello.Ã An important example that runs throughout Othello, is Iago's honesty.Ã This motif gave existence to Shakespeare's perfect villain. Ã The most interesting character in the play Othello is the villain, Iago, commonly referred to as "Honest Iago".Ã Iago is smart, and well tuned to human behavior, and uses this knowledge to his advantage.Ã He manipulates others to do things to help him reach his final goal; revenge on Othello and Cassio.Ã His greatest tool in doing so is his reputation as an honest and trustworthy person.Ã Othello believes Iago is a person "of exceeding honesty, and knows all qualities, with the learned spirit of human dealings." [Act III, Scene iii].Ã The other characters believe this as well, and Iago becomes a confidant for most of them. Ã The reputation Iago has, is encouraged by the other characters as well as himself.Ã After Cassio and Roderigo fight, Othello arrives and Iago is the first that he asks an explanation from; " Honest Iago, that looks dead with grieving, speak.Ã Who began this?" [Act II, scene iii].Ã Even after Iago would not answer, Montano tells Othello to ask Iago again; "Your officer, Iago, can inform you" [Act II, scene iii], knowing that Iago would speak the truth.Ã Both Othello and Montano are intensifying Iago's integrity here.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Othello'... ...aintain it, and encourage its existence. Ã In most stories, especially during Shakespeare's time, the villain is openly deceitful, and evil.Ã Moreover, they are usually unattractive, and automatically disliked by the other characters.Ã Shakespeare, in his brilliance, made Iago to be a charming, witty person, who is a friend to all.Ã This was something unknown to the audience of his time.Ã Shakespeare used this as a way of expressing an idea that anyone could have ulterior motives with their actions, and not to trust people with ease.Ã He addressed the difference between reputation and a person's true character, and how they are rarely the same.Ã In doing so, he created the most perfect villain of all of his works. Ã Work Cited Shakespeare, William. Othello. Ed. Kenneth Muir. The New Penguin Shakespeare. London: Penguin Books, 1996. Ã
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
The purpose of this manual Is to guide undergraduate and postgraduate students In the Department of Business Administration at university of Asia Pacific (PAP) in writing up their internship report. It will also be used as a standard with which students will comply in preparing their reports. Thus both students and faculty members acting as supervisors/co-supervisors are advised/expected to be familiar with the guidelines as mentioned in the manual. The manual comprises: A. Formatting of the report B. Preliminary Pages C. Matt Text D.References and Appendices The details of each section are presented below: A. Formatting of the Report The formatting of the report In the mall text should be as follows: Font size: 12 Font type: Times New Roman. Paper: AY size Line spacing: Double. Paragraph: To be indented after the first paragraph; Page margin: Left -1. 25 Len. ; Right, Top and Bottom Ã¢â¬â 1 In. Each. Page number: To be at the bottom-mid (or at the top-right) of the page, (1, Tota l length of the report: Maximum 40 pages, with the main body of the report not exceeding 30 pages.There are a number of segments In this section; these are: (I) Title page it) Approval Page (iii) Declaration page (iv) Acceptance Letter (vi) Acknowledgements (vii) Executive Summary (viii) Table of Contents (ix) List of Tables (x) List of Figures (xi) Acronyms Title Page: The Title of the report should be in the top portion of the page to be followed by Ã¢â¬ËBY and the name of the student. This should be followed by Ã¢â¬ËAn internship reportÃ¢â¬ ¦. For the degree of Business Administration', the name of the department and the university. At the bottom, the date should be mentioned, first, the month, and then, the year (for ex. September, 2010). Please see the format on the Title page on page no. 7. Approval Page: While it is the primary duty of the student to strictly follow the guidelines of writing his/her internship report, the concerned faculty members acting as supervisors a re requested to be involved and to guide the students to produce an authentic report free from Ã¢â¬ËPlagiarism' as stated in the next section. Declaration Page: It is of paramount importance that students understand clearly, when they write on this page that the internship work is absolutely theirs.Normally, it is not allowed to copy and paste works of others from any Journal or proceedings, r working papers, or websites or from any other sources, without proper citation, which is termed as Ã¢â¬Å"PlagiarismÃ¢â¬ . There is, however, one exception: a maximum of 400 words can be copied in which case these must be presented in inverted quotations with the name(s) of the author(s) and page number included. The students also need to remember that it is not enough to state the source of information in the reference section only; rather, it has to be mentioned also in internal citation in the main text of the report.Here is an example: Ã¢â¬ËKnowledge management encompasses a systemat ized and integrated managerial tragedy, which combines information technology with the organizational process'; it is Ã¢â¬Ëa managerial activity that develops, transfers, transmits, stores and applies knowledge, as well as provides the members of the organization with real information to react and make the right decisions, in order to attain the organization's goals' in an ever-changing competitive environment (Hung et al. , 2005, p. 165).Therefore, any student caught in plagiarism SHALL get an Ã¢â¬ËF grade, in which case, s/ he has to redo the whole report. They, therefore, must put references/sources of information whenever they cite any numerical figure (for ex. GAP growth rate, or no. Of public/private universities in the country, etc. ), existing information, or any section. Acceptance Letter: Please see on page 10. Letter of Transmittal: The Ã¢â¬ËLetter of Transmittal' in an internship report is a formal letter to the Supervisor informing him or her of the completion of the report.It contains the following items: Salutation Purpose of the letter Objectives/methodology/findings of the report Thanks Please see the sample Letter of Transmittal in Appendix-I on page no 13. Acknowledgements: Please see the acknowledgement section on page 10. Executive Summary: The executive summary is the snap shot of the whole report. It should be treated as a Ã¢â¬Ëstand-alone' section through which the supervisor/reader would get an idea about the overall work done during the internship period.While the length of an executive summary varies, for an internship report, it should not be more than 2 page-long. The content of an executive summary is given on page 1 1 . Table of Contents: In the Table of Contents, the preliminary pages should be stated first with page numbers to be in Roman letters ii. , iii. , etc. ]. This is followed by the main text here the page numbers are to be given as 1, 2, 3, etc. See the Table of Contents section on page 12. List of Tables: corr esponding page numbers. The tables should be numbered as 1 . , 1. 2, 2. 1, 2. 2, etc, as presented in each chapter. In the main text, the guidelines for presenting the Ã¢â¬ËTables' are as follows: There should be a double spacing between the text and the placement of the heading of the Table. Under the Table heading, the title should be written. Both the table heading and the title should be at the center of the page. Below that, there should be a blank single spacing for the table to be presented. After the table, again, there should be a double spacing for the next paragraph to start.In putting any table, the column grid lines are to be omitted; only the row lines are to be kept. No Table no. Should be presented without putting any reference of it in the main text. List of Figures: The list of figures should present all the figures chronologically with their corresponding page numbers. The figures should be numbered as 1 . 1, 1. 2, 2. 1, 2. 2, As in the case of a Table, there sh ould be a double spacing between the text and the placement of the Figure. Both the Figure number and the title should be at the center f the page, and written below the figure after a blank single spacing.After the figure title, again, there should be a double spacing for the next paragraph to start. No Figure number should be presented without putting any reference of it in the main text. For both Table and Figure, see sample Appendix 2 on page 14. Acronyms: All the acronyms should be presented chronologically in alphabetical order. In the main text, while stating for the first time, no abbreviations are allowed. For example, if in a sentence the word UN or SCARCE is mentioned, first time it has to be Ritter as United Nations (UN) or South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SCARCE).Subsequently, only the acronym or the abbreviated form UN or SCARCE is to be stated. C. Man-I Text: The main body of the report should contain the following chapters/sections as a general rule. However, it is up to the concerned faculty member(s) acting as deem it fit. For example, Ã¢â¬ËDiscussions' in the Chapter Three might be in the last chapter with the heading, like, Ã¢â¬ËDiscussions and Conclusions', or, the Ã¢â¬ËMethodology section could entirely be a separate section, as the case may be.Apart from this, the reservation of the tables and the figures should follow the guidelines as specified in the Ã¢â¬ËList of Tables' and Ã¢â¬ËList of Figures' sections. Chapter One: Introduction (I) (Origin of the Report) Background of the Study (iii) Objectives of the Report (v) Scope of the Report (v) Limitations of the Report (v') Organization/Structure of the Report Here, the section Ã¢â¬Ëorigin of the report' found in every report might be ignored since this information is to be written on the title page Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦..An internship report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Business Administration'. This section thus seems to be an exercise in redundancy, and may be omitted. We therefore might start with the Ã¢â¬ËBackground of the study. Chapter Two: Overview of the Industry/Company This section may also be called Ã¢â¬ËLiterature Review/Survey. In this section, for an industry overview, there should be one/two introductory paragraph(s).This may be followed by an analysis of the application of Michael Porter's 5-forces industry framework that would shed light on the competitiveness of the industry. Here the analysis should illustrate the degree of the impact (high/ medium/low) of the 5 forces and discuss elaborately why it is so. As for the overview of the particular company/organization where the internship is carried out, it should comprise a number of issues, such as, the period of the operation of the business, its branches (if any), its competitors, its product portfolio, its sales/profits in the last few years with adequate analysis.It may present BCC matrix of a few products in the co mpany's portfolio arguing why those fall in a particular category of the matrix. It should present ratio analysis, where various ratios comprising the data of the particular organization must be compared with hose of the industry average / leading company / its main competitor over a period. The section might be cap with the SOOT analysis presenting the four components in Chapter Three: Methodology In this section, the students must mention the sources of their information, primary and/or secondary.If any particular method/technique is applied to analyses the findings, it should be discussed in detail. Chapter Four: Findings and Discussions In the Ã¢â¬ËFindings' section, it is expected that the student displays a mastery of his/her analytical ability to analyses the findings. It is, therefore, not enough only to state the exult, rather, s/he is expected to come up with the arguments that can convince the readers (supervisor and/or examiner) of why it is so.For ex. , if in any part icular year, sales or profit goes up significantly compared to its previous or subsequent year(s), it should be adequately analyses by presenting probable reasons for being so.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Matt Professor: Book Review 4-2-13/ box WAR OF WORDS What is one thing that we all struggle with? What is one thing that is the hardest for some of us? IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t it how we use our words? Looking into this book War on Words by Paul Tripp was a truth taking book that gripped my understanding of words and exploded it with truth. This book from Tripp allowed me to look into the importance of words and how they affect you and me. In the beginning God spoke the earth into existence, now this might not sound big to some people, but if we think about it what other things could God have done in order to form humanity and Earth?Well IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure he couldÃ¢â¬â¢ve done many other hand gestures and other things, but he decided that the formed ground on which we stand and the people that we see everyday are to be formed out of the words formed in the very mouth of God. When this was explained in the book I absolutely lost my ability to think and focused on this one thing that truly is impo rtant for us as Christians. If God had placed that into thought shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t we understand that our mouth has so much more of significance than we think?In the beginning Tripp says first there were GodÃ¢â¬â¢s words and then there were SatanÃ¢â¬â¢s words, and Tripp says that there is a difference between words that build up and words that destroy and how Satan is going to use truth but distort it and with his words he will deceive the world of men. GodÃ¢â¬â¢s words were words of power and purity. This is the call that Tripp asks us to look into, and ask ourselves which ones are we? Then Tripp continues to hit us with the truth he then asks a simple question, he says Ã¢â¬Å"what should we take away from our consideration of communication in Genesis 1?First, our words belong to the Lord. He is the Great Speaker. The wonder, the significance, the glory of human communication has its roots in his glory and in his decision to let us talk with us and allow us to talk with him and others (pg. 15). Ã¢â¬ This is not just something that we should take for granted, but that it should be carefully scripted and formed to show others that our words are not of this world but that our words are conformation that the Lord allows us to communicate to others.The very words that the Lord used in the Garden to communicate to Adam and Eve were the very examples that we need to see, and I know that it sounds strange but the perfect beings that lacked nothing in their humanity still needed that lasting relationship with the Lord though words and feelings spoken through words. Then Tripp takes this interesting movement into what he really means by the war beneath the war of words he says, Ã¢â¬Å"The Word would not have come into our world if our struggle were primarily a struggle of flesh and blood,Ã¢â¬ (pg. 7) he then goes on to say that the problem is our words and an even deeper importance our heart. Tripp goes on to say that the words formed from our mouth are an ac tion of our heart and that we need to go even deeper into our war on words and look into our heart the one thing that the Lord is trying to change. Tripp says these changes can only take place when we ask for a true renewal of our heart through the saving knowledge of Jesus Christ.When we realize that this war cannot be fought with our own mind but that the word of God and the living being of God need to be a major and only significant change in our minds and heart, this will change our words from unedifying to encouragement. In a world that uses their own encouragement because it edifies them, the Christian perspective has to be to edify God and not ourselves. In learning this Tripp says scriptures tells us that if we are going to see lasting change in our communication, we must start from within, as we deal with the idolatry of our hearts.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Although there is no absolute proof that King Arthur lived, the historical and literary information has made him an ideal representative of the middle ages. The Middle Ages have always been an intriguing field of study for historians and archeologists around the world. Because of historians and archeologist, we have a history foundation that goes back to the beginning of time. However, the issue that is under debate and gives historians the most controversies is in era of the Middle Ages. The topic of debate that gives historians bring up the most about the middle ages is the legend of King Arthur. Over the past millennium, the story of King Arthur has been past down from generation to generation. From the movie Excalibur, to the famous Broadway plays about King Arthur, he has always been portrayed as the gallant king who saves the day and is undefeatable in battles. But the truth about Arthur has come under much criticism, many of historians have argued about if he really existed or was he just a myth. In fact, there have been rumors that three ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s that lived during that time frame, but which one was the true king Arthur? This is the reason why he has come under so much criticism in the past decade. Another reason why historians are skeptical to the true existence is that the dates when he had been known to live do not add up. There are different periods for battles the he supposedly fought in and had he fought in them, he would have been over a hundred years old. Historians have said that this would have been impossible due to the Black Plague and numerous other plagues going on during that time. There is truth behind the legendary King Arthur and there is support to show that he did live, but historians are having a hard time piecing together the facts that are known. Many of writers who have dared to write about him have had to do intensive research about the legendary Arthur, with little or unknown evidence to support the truth about him. Historians have had to deal with little known information, only able to piece part of what little known fact that there are. The truth about King Arthur will be under debate long after I am gone but I would like to know the truth about the legendary King Arthur, Merlin and the truth to the lady in the lake and Excalibur. The earliest accounts of King Arthur were discovered in the Celtic, Latin, and French resources. They show that he was from a royal bloodline. Latin sources show that his real father was King Uther Pendragon. The story tells how King Urther fell in love with Queen Igraye of Cornwall who was married. And with the aid of Merlin a Celtic magician, Uther took the form of the Duke of Cornwall and seduced Queen Igraye and so conceived Arthur. He was raised without the knowledge of his true royal ancestry and grew up as a knightÃ¢â¬â¢s squire. Until one day, he was required to go fetch the knightÃ¢â¬â¢s sword where he came upon the sword in the stone and pulled it out of the stone. The story behind the stone is that AuthurÃ¢â¬â¢s true Dad died and Britain was without a true king and so Merlin the magician put the sword in the stone, saying that the true king of Britain will pull the sword from the stone. Ã¢â¬ Arthur succeeded the throne at the early age of fifteen after proving his royalty and chastity by drawing the famous magic sword, Excalibur, from the stone. In his first major conquest he subdued the Saxons and expanded his control over Scotland, Ireland, Iceland, and the Orkneys, and established a period of peace for over twelve years. There is much in the pursuit of the issue if Arthur was of historical value to the middle ages. There is no absolute evidence, but it is possible that Arthur was Briton or Roman-Briton king who led the Celtics against the Anglo-Saxons in the early 8th century.Ã¢â¬ (Americana, Arthurian Romances, 1972) The kings of the medieval period were warlords that protected a particular area of land; they surrounded themselves with knights who swore allegiance in battle in exchange for gifts of gold, armor, and land. There have been three basic charter descriptions of Arthur, which detail the characteristics of the Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ king Arthur. In the earliest descriptions heÃ¢â¬â¢s portrayed as a fierce, feared warrior, capable of tremendous prowess in hand to hand combat. Described by the Welsh priest, Nessius in his Latin Historia Brillonum, Arthur was Ã¢â¬Å"chosen twelve times to lead the Celts, Arthur carried the image of the Virgin and won twelve battles, the last being at Mt. Badon in which he killed 960 of the enemy singly handedlyÃ¢â¬ (Americana). The second image of Arthur is that of a Ã¢â¬Å"peripheral figure whose presence is felt mainly as a social force of arbiter of chivalric excellenceÃ¢â¬ (Americana). A Welshman named Goeffrey of Monmouth was the first to describe the characters and stories we are familiar with today. In the Historia Rogum Britanniae, Geoffrey tells of ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s siring through and adulterous relationship between Uther Pendragon and Igraine. He also introduces the magician Merlin and describes ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s eventual resting-place on the isle of Avalon. In later treatment of Arthurian legends such s Thomas MalloryÃ¢â¬â¢s Le Morte Darthur, Arthur is depicted as a more two dimensional character. There is a naive side portrayed be the king, like when he refuses to see the romance between Guinevere, his wife, and Lancelot, a knight, although there are many warnings. For instance, when the affair is revealed, ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s impetuous actions begin the downfall of his court. He condemns Gueniverer to death, forcing Lancelot to save her. In rescuing Guenivere, Lancelot inadvertently kills Gwain, brother and creator of the feud between Gwain and Lancelot. Throughout it all, Arthur is blind and naive and is swept up by events outside his control. There is evidence that Arthur is lost without the advice of the magician Merlin. Arthur does not always understand the implications of the events and is unable to draw his own conclusions without MerlinÃ¢â¬â¢s help. Arthur is without full understanding of his actions and causes the end of Camelot and of his reign. Arthur was killed by his illegitimate son Mordred, whom Arthur fathered in an ancesturous relationship with his half -sister Morgan Le Fay. As is presented in many of the later Arthurian stories, Arthur is duped by MordredÃ¢â¬â¢s magical powers, and showing his susceptibility to trickery. The cause of it was when the Roman ambassadors arrived in Camelot demading tribute. Rejecting their offer, he set sail to confront the Roman forces, leaving his son Mordred as vice regent. After conquering the Romans, Arthur heard of news that Mordred had an uprising and his goal was to over through King Arthur. Arthur returned to Camelot where a bitter battle was fought between the rebels and the loyal subjects. The king killed Mordred, but was severely wounded himself. He was carried away secretly to the secret aisle of Avalon, the Celtic Mythology island of the blessed souls, to be healed of his wounds. Arthur returned to Camelot, but legend says he will someday come back to rule over England again. Merlin first appears in the Middle ages as a mere prophet, but his role gradually evolved into that of a magician and advisor, active in all phases of the administration of ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s kingdom. He was apparently given the name Ambrosias at his birth in Caer-Fy Riddin (Carmorthen). He later became known as Merlin a Latinized version of the Welsh word Myrddin, taken from the place of his birth. Geoffrey of Monmouth was thought to have invented the name Merlin, most likely because he invented everything else in his stories. MerlinÃ¢â¬â¢s was the illegitimate son of the royal princess of Dyfed. His father was Kind Meurig, who was not found in the traditional pedigrees of the kingdom and was more than likely a sub-king of the region of Coredigion. MerlinÃ¢â¬â¢s father was known to be an angel who had visited the royal nun and left her with a child. MerlinÃ¢â¬â¢s enemies claim that his father was an evil spirit that had sex with women while they were sleeping. The evil child was to provide a counter weight to the good influence of Jesus on earth. Merlin was baptized when he was young, which is said to have negated his evil nature. The original story was presumably invented to save his mother from the scandal which would have occurred had her liaison with one Morfyn Frych, a minor price of the house of Coel, been made public knowledge. Legend has it that when Merlin grew up that he inherited his grandfatherÃ¢â¬â¢s kingdom, but instead abandoned his land in favor of the mysterious life he has become so well known for. He was known for his aiding of Unther Pendrogon in his deception of changing him into Gorloris the Duke of Cornwall who then seduces Queen Ygerna and she conceives Arthur. After ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s birth, Merlin became the young boys tutor. In his defining moment of ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s career, Merlin arranged for the Sword in the Stone contest by which Arthur becomes king. Later Merlin meets the mystic Lady of the Lake at the Fountain of Barenton and persuaded her to present the king with the magical sword Excalibur. In the Romances, MerlinÃ¢â¬â¢s the creator of the round table and is closely involved in aiding and directing the events of the king and the kingdom of Camelot. In the book by Geoffrey of Monmouth he is pictured at the end of ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s life accompanying the wounded Arthur to the Isle of Avalon for the healing of ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s wounds. According to GeoffreyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Vita MerliniÃ¢â¬ (c.1151) Merlin was a sixth century prophet living in the north of Britain where his career extended beyond ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s. These same scholars believe that there were two MelinÃ¢â¬â¢s, Myrddin Emrys and Myrddin Wylt. The fact the Merlin apparently lived from Ã¢â¬Å"the reign of Vortigern (c420) to the reign of Riderech Huel (c580)Ã¢â¬ would certainly support this view. Cadbury Castle is the best known and most interesting of the reported sights of Camelot. Cadbury is an absolute hill of limestone and sandstone. The summit is about 500 feet above the sea level with a wide view of central Somerset, including the Four at Glastonbury, which is12 miles away, and in clear weather Brent knoll and beyond. It had four lines of bank and ditch defense. The first known to refer to Cadbury as Camelot is John Leland in 1542. He says Ã¢â¬Å"At the very south, end of the church of South-Cadbri standith Camallate sometimes a famous town or castleÃ¢â¬ ¦.The people can tell nothing there but that they have heard Arthur much resorted to CamelotÃ¢â¬ . Skeptics have agrees that there was no real local tradition, or perhaps a vague tradition of Arthur only and that the evocative name is a guess of Leland prompted by the Queen Camel. Yet he speaks of Camelot without any discussions as a recognized fact, and his spelling with an A instead of an O in the last syllable may echo a local pronunciation. Whatever the people of the neighborhood were saying in 1542 they have certainly cherished Arthurian lore since then. Cadbury hills has itÃ¢â¬â¢s legends, one midsummer eve or midsummer night ( opinions differ and some say it only every seven years) Arthur and his knights ride over the hilltop and down through the ancient gateway, and their horses drink at a spring besided Sutton Montis Church. Whether or not they can be seen, their hoof beats can be heard. Below the hill are traces of an old track, running toward Glatonburg, called ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s lane or Hunting Causeway where a noise of spectral riders and hounds goes past on a winterÃ¢â¬â¢s night. Cadbury never had a castle; the fortified hill itself was the castle. The Rev. James Bennett of south Cadbury carried out the first small excavation of Cadbury Hill. In a paper published in 1890, he told how he had cut a trench through the top rampart and judged that it was built up in layers over a long time. This was found true. In 1913, H. St. George Gray excavated again, chiefly near the southwest entrance, finding objects that showed that people were on the hill in the late Iron Age just before the Roman Conquest. The crucial step from the Arthurian point of view did not come until the middle 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. Part of the enclosure was ploughed; and a local archeologist named Mrs. Mary Hartfield picked up flints and potsherds, which appeared on the surface in the upturned soil. Among these Dr. Raleigh Radford recognizes pottery of the type he had found at Tingel, which proved that somebody had lived here at about the time of Arthur, and most likely a person of wealth, who could import luxury goods. The interest thus aroused led to the formation of the Camelot Research Committee. It became clear that British Celts of the Iron Age had not only built the earth works defense, but reconstructed the top bank several times as Bennett suspected a village flourished on the plateau for hundred of years. In a central and commanding position on the high part of the hill called ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s Palace, the foundation of a timber hall came to light. It was 63ft. by 34ft. Their walls were marked by postholes cut in the bedrock. In outline, it resembled the hall of Castle Dore, but there were grounds for inferring more skillful workmanship quality rather than size. In this building the chief warriors would have assembled, feasted, listened to minstrels, planned campaigns, most important of all was the discovery which was made in the bank. The three quarter mile perimeter of the hill, cuts through it in several places, now refilled like the entrance, revealed across section like layer cake, with strata one above another showing how the ram art had been rebuilt at various times over the centuries. The defensive system surrounding the hill made an impression in keeping with the period. The wall itself, with its timber bracing and super structure, was very like what the British Celts were building before the Roman Conquest. It incorporated fragments of Roman masonary, salvaged from derelict buildings but it was strictly a national piece of work. The truth about the real King Arthur, is an issue that will be around until the truth is revealed about him. Historian and archeologist have debated this issue for over a millennium with no were getting to the truth about him. They have found that he did exist, but will they ever come to the agreement about him. For know we will have to live with folklore to the existence of the true King Arthur.