Sunday, March 15, 2020
The Golden Arches Shine the Way to Obesity David Zinczenko is a fifteen year old boy of a single mother who works long hours to support her family. Davids mother leaves early in the morning and most nights is not home in time for dinner. What does this mean for David ?This young boy is left to fend for himself. David is a latchkey child which means he goes home to an empty house. A lot of responsibility lands on Davids shoulders. He must do his own home homework with out help. Make sure he has clothes to wear the next day and that he is bathed for school. Also he must feed himself. Now for David his dinner maybe a bucket of fried chicken or happy meal that consists of a hamburger, fries and dont forget the toy! In fact many nights David found himself found himself eating from one of the local fast food restaurants such as McDonalds , Taco bell, and Pizza Hut. With these horrible eating habits David ends up weighing two hundred and twelve pounds at the age of fifteen. He is at risk of many health issues that come with obesity. Yes, David was lacking in knowledge. He did not know how these food would affect his health and his body. Also his mother whom found herself so tired from her long hours trying to support her son by herself that she failed to educate her child in healthy eating or to come home and cook a nutritious meal. Simply its cheaper and quicker to eat out at Jack in the Box then to go to the grocery store and take the time to cook a healthy meal. But Fast food companies are not completely out of the woods. Companies like McDonalds do not make it easier to eat healthy. What healthy food they do offer can be way over priced compared to their dollar menu where cheep, greasy food can be found. One in eight families receive cal fresh. But still Taco Bells , McDonalds and KFC, stocks are at an all time high( Fault Lines). Even thought economic times are hard for the American people Fast food companies continue to benefit. This is because its cheaper to buy fast food than it is to buy fresh food at the market. The United States of America is being called the fattest nation. Data collected between 1999 and 2002 in the Prevalence of Obesity study stated that one in six people are overweight. Now it is two out of three people are concerted obese and it is believed in 2020 that numbers will rise to three out of four(Obesity In America). In 1994 most case of diabetes in children were caused by genetic disorders but now thirty percent of children with diabetes are related to obesity (Zinczenko). In fact Obesity can cause many health problems. One result from child obesity is a fatty liver which can lead to diabetic feet and cantatrice arrest.(Vreugdennil). If this goes untreated Anita Vreugdennil Founder of the center for overweight adolescent and children informs us that two out of ten children that struggle with these health issues due to obesity will die in the next ten years . She is not alone Jamie Olivers a chef who has made it his life goal to save lives buy educating people about the power of food. The United States of America is one of the most unhealthy countries in the world . Olivers states that our children will die before their parents. Children today will live ten years younger than their parents (Olivers). Ten percent of our health care is spent on obesity and it is believed to double. Cancer , heart disease, strokes and diabetes are just a few more causes of death that come from obesity. Actually in the eighteen minutes that Jamie Olivers speaks he states that four Americans would die from obesity related illnesses. In the last thirty years we have gone from fresh and local food to processed and out sourced food. Fast food and big Companies have taken over and taken advantage of lower income families to make a profit. This table from Olivers Ted Talk shows us the causes of death in the united states. Notice that homicide is at the very bottom and cancer , heart diseases ,stroke and diabetes are top of the list. These causes of deaths all come from obesity not being treated. Fast food company and big companies are continuing to make lots of money off the poor and overworked people of this nation. Fast food restaurants serve two to five times over the normal serving portion size. when we consume these fast food Quarter Pounder burger and extra large fry we find or selves hungry sooner than later. This I because the food we are eating does not hold the nutritional value healthier food does which would keep us fuller longer. These food are also fully packed with to much sugars and carbohydrates that are body does not need. That junk food gives us a rush or energy and then quickly dies off. In 2006 food industries attempted to balance the mix of food advertisement to limit childrens exposure to un healthy food. But despite policy efforts child obesity continues to raise. Fifty four point six percent of food advertisement represents unhealthy food products for children. Many children find them selves in a Food Desert . Which is cities and towns that have no places to get fresh food such as grocery stores or farmer markets. Instead there are liquor stores that are filled with junk food and sugary snacks. The streets are lined with McDonalds , Jack in the Box and KFCs on every corner. Big Fast food companies dont care about our childrens future or health. Ronald McDonald advertises happiness with junk food when he continues to market happy meals to our young children who will become trapped in a viscous cycle. They will become trapped a habit of unhealthy eating that Ronald McDonald encourages. Like David Zinczenko says many kids Crossed under the golden arches to a likel y fate of lifetime obesity. TED. Ã¢â¬Å"Teach Every Child about Food | Jamie Oliver.Ã¢â¬ YouTube, YouTube, 12 Feb. 2010, youtube.com/watch?v=go_QOzc79Uc. Talks, TEDx. Ã¢â¬Å"The Approach to Treating Childhood Obesity | Anita Vreugdenhil | TEDxMaastricht.Ã¢â¬ YouTube, YouTube, 22 Oct. 2015, youtube.com/watch?v=IsMZmfEDupY. Ã¢â¬Å"Weekday and Weekend Food Advertising Varies on Childrens Television in the USA but Persuasive Techniques and Unhealthy Items Still Dominate.Ã¢â¬ Weekday and Weekend Food Advertising Varies on Childrens Television in the USA but Persuasive Techniques and Unhealthy Items Still Dominate (Article, 2017) [San Bernardino Community College District Libraries], sbccdlibs.worldcat.org/title/weekday-and-weekend-food-advertising-varies-on-childrens-television-in-the-usa-but-persuasive-techniques-and-unhealthy-items-still-dominate/oclc/6861606978. Ã¢â¬Å"Prevalence of Obesity in the United States.Ã¢â¬ Prevalence of Obesity in the United States. (Article, 2005) [San Bernardino Community College District Libraries], sbccdlibs.worldcat.org/title/prevalence-of-obesity-in-the-united-states/oclc/110336576. English, Al Jazeera. Ã¢â¬Å" Fast Food, Fat Profits: Obesity in America | Fault Lines.Ã¢â¬ YouTube, YouTube, 19 Nov. 2010, youtube.com/watch?v=slwgXXVXM3I.Google Search, Google, google.com/search?biw=1536bih=770tbm=ischsa=1ei=EVniW9faN4KL_wTUx52YBwq=mcdonalds obesityoq=mcdonaldsÃ obgs_l=img.1.0.0l7j0i8i30l3.19874.22041..244400.0..0.69.185.30.1..gws-wiz-img.0i67j0i10i67.DftPY_imuf8#imgrc=QLHmMlr8dXCIDM:
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Company Promotion Policies - Research Paper Example Fron this essay it is clear that if we look at the argument from the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, they believe that Maria is a good employee; however, she is loud and aggressive at time in her contact with co-workers and supervisors. Moreover, she has had punctuality issues twice in the past and she gives family problems as the causes. She says that her family needed her help and support and it was her duty to do so. With regard to the accent, it was also cleared out that it was not the company was discriminating her accent, although it was a major consideration. However, it was pointed out that Maria speaks very rapidly and because of her accent, it becomes impossible to understand anything she said. The company says that communication is a very important part of that job description and hence, it cannot be overlooked.This study highlights thatÃ we need to first understand discrimination before we can provide any ruling regarding the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s promotion policy. We can defi ne discrimination as the bias in treatment that exists towards a certain race, color, sex, nationality. Another explanation of discrimination can be the improper treatment based on unjustified factors. Racial discrimination occurs when a member of one racial group is treated favorably as compared to the member of another racial group. Discrimination in the workplace occurs when there is an unjustified hiring, promotion, job assignment, compensation, or termination of the job... We can define discrimination as the bias in treatment that exists towards a certain race, color, sex, nationality. Another explanation of discrimination can be the improper treatment based on unjustified factors. Racial discrimination occurs when a member of one racial group is treated favorably as compared to the member of another racial group. Discrimination in the workplace occurs when there is an unjustified hiring, promotion, job assignment, compensation, or termination of the job (Blank, Dabady, & Citro, 2004). The law that is most widely used by employees against discrimination is the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which states that, Ã¢â¬Å"to fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual, or otherwise to discriminate against any individual with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment, because of such individual's race, color, religion, sex, or national origin; or (2) to limit, segregate, or classify his employees or appli cants for employment in any way which would deprive or tend to deprive any individual of employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affect his status as an employee, because of such individual's race, color, religion, sex, or national originÃ¢â¬ (Garcez, n.d.). The case at hand is that the company promoted another employee based on his evaluation and his aggressiveness for the job and another employee who is in racial minority in the company believes that there has been discrimination based on sex, race, and language ability. There were three major reasons that contributed towards MariaÃ¢â¬â¢s retention at her current post: her aggressive and loud behavior with her co-workers and supervisors, issues with punctuality, and her accent, which
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
Hegemony and Educatiom - Research Paper Example This essay will also discuss the ethical issues and the negative effects contained in hegemony and education. As stated above, hegemony and education are closely related. Hegemony presents itself in various fields including cultural, religious, and regional studies. In the past, hegemony was closely associated with political and military rule of states. However, in the 20th century, it was centered on cultural hegemony. This concept was invented by Antonio Gramsci, a Marxist scholar (Roger, 1991). The concept was known as the cultural domination theory which is an analysis of the economic class. Therefore, the sociological and philosophical theories are an analysis of the norms that form social structures (Raymond, 1977). Elementary education is also known as primary education. It is usually a period of at least 8 years of schooling from age five or six (Brandt, 1986). However, this varies depending on the country that the learner is located in. The politico-military connection in th e ruling of a subordinate society encourages cultural and social tasks that are quite non-beneficial and deviant to the members of the society (Roger, 1991). These social, cultural and political issues are of significant effect in the elementary curriculum. In the elementary education level, both the learners and the staff are affected by the socio-cultural and economic factors. For example, elementary tutors face formidable challenges in their work. In the contemporary world, many elementary teachers are subjected to demands in the philosophy of education, standardized assessment of their teaching skills, and school organization. In general, critical pedagogy shows that there is unequal social stratification in the society (21st Century Schools, 2010). It is based on gender, race, and social class which are evident through the military and political rule in a social setup. At the elementary educational level, the learners are to be taught effectively to achieve a positive outcome i n the society in the future. However, the hegemonic control over various educational levels reflects negatively to the learners in various countries. Additionally, the issue of hegemonic masculinity has also affected the female tutors in most educational institutions. This concept has been contested and has also attracted serious criticism in the academic world (21st Century Schools, 2010). In hegemony, the authority relations are said to have significant implications in the way individuals understand ethics. Ethics can be defined as the moral way of life. Ethics is applied in most fields of life including the military sector. In the military, ethics guides the militia group to act consistently while following the necessities of the organization. Just like in the militia organization, schools have also set up ethical guidelines that are to be observed by the teachers, learners, and other staff in a school (King, Hollins & Hayman, 1994). In hegemony, the most common ethical issues th at are able to arise include diversity, inequity, injustice, and growth-hindrance factors that affect the society. These factors are considered the central ethical challenges in this case study. The ethical issues are likely to arise from the indirect rule in any subordinate state. The inequality and injustice elements in the society are based on gender, race, and economic class of the individual or society involved. Furthermore, the diversity and growth-hindra
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Tips in Writing an Argumentative Essay For EnglishIn case you are going to write an argumentative essay for English, you need to consider a few things. Read on to find out what you should do to make the most of your writing effort.A writer needs to have a strong writing style. It's better that you understand the basics of what is acceptable style, because if you get confused then it will be difficult for you to write an argumentative essay for English. Writing an argumentative essay for English is not easy but it will give you a successful result in your studies if you have the right perspective and skills.You can also take help from various books and websites to help you in writing an argumentative essay for English. Some of these resources can be very helpful, while some are merely for decoration purpose. It is wise that you are comfortable with the basics first before trying to change them into something else.The next important thing that you need to do is to prepare your essay pr operly. If you plan to publish your essay in an online site, you should make sure that your essay is well prepared for the online readers. Besides, you should also make sure that the online readers are well-informed about what you are saying.Also, it is a good idea to organize the content carefully, which means it should be presented in the most organized manner. If you arrange your essays in an orderly manner, you can write something original and informative.An essay for English needs to be readable. You can arrange the essay according to the subject of the essay. If you use simple language then you will get more benefit in writing an argumentative essay for English.Apart from that, it is also a good idea to get all the relevant information that you require about the topic. Online sites are often updated and you can get the most updated information about the essay from their blogs.
Thursday, February 6, 2020
The Incredible Details About Critical Analysis Research Paper Topics in Mental Healt That Most People Dont Know About
The Incredible Details About Critical Analysis Research Paper Topics in Mental Healt That Most People Don't Know About If a student plans to turn into a distinguished author of the health-related literature, it's important to select several relevant healthcare research troubles and conduct independent studying to provide new solutions to the present problems. Identify the research procedures and attempt to identify whether they seem to be suitable or not. Such methods are many times utilised in evaluation research to spell out how a program or intervention operates. Think about evaluation criteria. In lots of decades, you are going to be a Doctor of Science. Search for research which has been done. Research is necessary to acquire knowledge about what works in cultural competency and the way it works. Stigma against mentally ill persons is a big problem, and it has increased in incidence. Life experiences like stress or trauma together with substance abuse could also destabilise a person's mental wellbeing. Mental illness may actually be a result of cultural bias. In various scenarios, mental sickness is ignored or not given the proper remedy punctually, therefore, leading to critical consequences. Importance in mental wellness management a lot of the people afflicted by mental illnesses sometimes fail to look for medical assistance because of the prejudice thatexists locally. People with mental health problems experience many distinct forms of stigma. The issue of mental disorders is extremely rampant and scary because only few people today have the ability to acknowledge they have an issue and can take time to find medical assistance. As a way to realize that you're working with a crucial analysis, you've got to try to remember that analysis means breaking down and studying of the parts. Unfortunately already developed applications haven't been architected with having an upcoming transformation into microservices in mind, and in some specific circumstances a comprehensive transformation from monolithic into microservice might be impossi ble. In this manner, it is going to be prepared to evolve into a microservice architecture only as soon as the remedy is becoming complex. The path of totally free choice is pretty slippery, so be cautious on your way. Locating a solid topic is just one of the most essential steps when writing any form of paper. Picking an Article You can decide on any article you wish to review, with only 3 caveats. During the time you are reading the post, you must look for details that identify the subject of the post. It could be helpful to explain first how the arguments provided in the text are the very same, or different from arguments given in different texts on exactly the same topic. At length, in case you have any questions regarding the paper, do not be afraid to ask me. Make your order to find the best academically distinctive and structured paper. It has evaluation criteria for the consumers to learn the degree of support they are ready to acquire and what's necessary to increase their conditions in a far superior way (Rapp, 1998, p.79). Be aware that one of the absolute most important thing in mental wellness counseling is developing a superior rapportwith the patient and so building trust. It offers its services to any man or woman who has the will and has the ability to acquire guidance from it. Healthcare Administrator research papers note that considering the function of healthcare administration staff within the bigger context of the hospital, it's clear there are lots of iss ues that administrators will need to deal with. The Debate Over Critical Analysis Research Paper Topics in Mental Healt When you are confronted with choosing healthcare research paper topics, all the choices may be intimidating for you. You have to research this theme since there are a lot of information which you need to use in the content. A mentally healthy person is one which is properly adjusted to the emotional and behavioural necessities of the vital stresses and conflicts related to daily living. As previously mentioned, there may be a number of varieties of articles to analyze. If you're studying to go into a career that is connected to public well-being, you can select from a number of subjects. Students will discover the best ideas within this list of great suggestions. Unfortunately, on account of the huge class sizes of several psychology courses most students don't have a chance to come up with their writing skills, multiple choice exams being the much more com mon method of student evaluation. So, both students of medical care programs together with students of any other specialty may have a task to compose an essay on health topic. The Chronicles of Critical Analysis Research Paper Topics in Mental Healt The aim of this report is, thus, to suggest ways of making up topics in sex research, in addition to suggest 55 topic ideas. Maybe you presently have a generalized idea of what things to write in your mind, and the following will let you concentrate on some specific thought or perhaps change your choice. Let us do the job that's right for you, which means you have sufficient time to do what you need to do!
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
The Debate Over Gmo Argumentative Essay Topics The Pain of Gmo Argumentative Essay Topics Inspiration to make your own advertising or media argumentative essay topics isn't tough to discover. In this kind of situation, it's more convenient to discover ready-made essays and use them as an example. Our professional writers know about the fundamental elements of an argumentative essay. If you're looking for examples of argumentative essays, here's a sample that will help you out! Moreover, in-text citations will present your awareness of the various papers formats. Since you may see, there's a multitude of different argumentative paper titles it's possible to utilize. In fact, academic papers can turn out to be not simply a very simple homework but in addition real argumentative masterpieces. If you decide on boring, bland or irrelevant topics, you aren't going to have an extremely prosperous paper. The very first is to learn more comprehensive information from our brochures. To start with, local newspaper papers are sometimes a fantastic place to discover interesting argumentative essay topics. Pick something within this real to research for an intriguing paper. Understanding how to compose a strong argumentative paper will help you advance your very own argumentative thinking. If you're arguing for, you are going to be on the pro side, and if you're arguing against, you'll be on the con side. Any implication to the contrary truth is normally a pure fabrication. In fact, there's an insanely small quantity of people who work in agriculture. Gmo Argumentative Essay Topics Fundamentals Explained Persuasive essays are a fantastic method to encourage the reader to check at a particular topic in a different light. It's important to understand that essay topics are j ust basic ideas that leave you pondering a notion that might be a huge deal to somebody else. On the flip side, there are huge rewards for everybody who has the capability to overturn a paradigm. The actual folks highly praise our essay help site. There are lots of things to argue when it regards the law. Explore the association between drugs and violent crime in connection with the quote. Our writers use their abilities and abilities to fulfill the wants and necessities of our customers. Young writers may try simple on-line citation generators which are generally at no charge. You don't need to acquire super technical with legal argumentative essays, but don't forget to do your homework on what the recent laws about your preferred topic actually say. When it has to do with writing an argumentative essay, the main point to do is to select a topic and an argument that you could really get behind. It's possible to opt for an intriguing topic from any area of science. There are several intriguing topics that could be become a persuasive essay if you take the opportunity to consider about doing it. There are lots of aspects about a sport that may be argued in an essay. It isn't always simple for a young learner to do. You must have skills to compose a great essay. Deciding on your topic isn't that easy. It is a good idea to prevent argument essay topics on moral issues because they don't support logical discussion. Argumentative topics can be a number of the widest-reaching essay assignments on Earth. Researching the topic will enable you to find out more about what fascinates you, and should you pick something you really like, writing the essay will be more enjoyable. Until then, you may use these amazing suggestions to help you compose the ultimate persuasive essay for your next college undertaking. It also is dependent on the specific college subject. With proper main topics, students may reach great results. Many students know it is hard to effectively develop an argumentative topic.
Friday, January 31, 2020
Assessment and Students Essay Journal assessment Conclusion Reccomendation III. INTRODUCTION: Why do Assessment? Are you asking too little of your class? Are your students approaching your course as hurdlers, barely clearing required levels of performance? Or are they approaching your course like high jumpers, pushing themselves under your guidance to increasingly more challenging heights? If your students arent high jumpers, maybe its because you arent asking them to high jump. By using appropriate assessment techniques, you can encourage your students to raise the height of the bar. There is considerable evidence showing that assessment drives student learning. More than anything else, our assessment tools tell students what we consider to be important. They will learn what we guide them to learn through our assessments. Traditional testing methods have been limited measures of student learning, and equally importantly, of limited value for guiding student learning. These methods are often inconsistent with the increasing emphasis being placed on the ability of students to think analytically, to understand and communicate at both detailed and big picture levels, and to acquire lifelong skills that permit continuous adaptation to workplaces that are in constant flux. Moreover, because assessment is in many respects the glue that links the components of a course its content, instructional methods, and skills development changes in the structure of a course require coordinated changes in assessment. IV. RESEARCH (CONTENT) What is Assessment? Assessment is a systematic process of gathering, interpreting, and acting upon data related to student learning and experience for the purpose of developing a deep understanding of what students know, understand, and can do with their knowledge as a result of their educational experience; the process culminates when assessment results are used to improve subsequent learning. Huba and Freed, 2000 Key Points Assessment is an ongoing process aimed at understanding and improving student learning Multiple methods Criteria and standards Evidence Students know, can do and understand ItÃ¢â¬â¢s more than just collecting data Sequence in Preparing Instructionally Relevant Assessment INSTRUCTION Indicates the learning outcomes to be attained by students LEARNING TASK Specifies the particular set of learning task(s) to be assessed. ASSESSMENT Provides a procedure designed to measure a representative sample of the instructionally relevant learning tasks. Is there close agreement? What is the Assessment Process? AIMS ASSESSMENT ACTION ADJUSTMENT Importance of Assessment To find out what the students know (knowledge) To find out what the students can do, and how well they can do it (skill; performance) To find out how students go about the task of doing their work (process) To find out how students feel about their work (motivation, effort) What is Student Assessment for? *To help us design and modify programs to better promote learning and student success. To provide common definitions and benchmarks for student abilities that will enable us to act more coherently and effectively to promote student learning. *To provide feedback, guidance, and mentoring to students so as to help them better plan and execute their educational programs. *To provide improved feedback about student learning to support faculty in their work. Functions of Assessment Diagnostic: tell us what the student needs to learn Formative: tell us how well the student is doing as work progresses Summative: tell us how well the student did at the end of a unit/task What can be assessed? Student learning characteristics -Ability differences -Learning styles Student motivational characteristics -Interest -Self-efficacy -goal orientation Learning Content knowledge Ability to apply content knowledge Skills Dispositions and attitudes Performances Direct and Indirect Assessment Measures Direct methods ask students to demonstrate their learning while indirect methods ask them to reflect on their learning. Direct methods include objective tests, essays, case studies, problem solving exercises, presentations and classroom assignments. Indirect methods include surveys, interviews and student reflection and/or self-assessment essays. It is useful to include both direct and indirect assessment measures in your assessments. How should we assess? True Ã¢â¬âFalse Item Multiple Choice Completion Short Answer Essay Practical Exam Papers/Reports Projects Questionnaires Inventories Checklist Peer Rating Self Rating Journal Portfolio Observations Discussions Interviews Criteria In Choosing an Assessment Method It should be reliable. It should be valid. It should be simple to operate, and should not be too costly. It should be seen by students and society in general. It should benefit all students. Who should be involved in assessment? The teacher The student The studentÃ¢â¬â¢s peer Administrator Parents What should we do with the information from our assessment? Use it to improve the focus of our teaching (diagnosis) Use it to focus student attention of strengths and weaknesses (motivation) Use it to improve program planning (program assessment) Use it for reporting to parents Classroom Assessment Paper and pencil assessments: Ask students to respond in writing to questions or problem -Item level: Assessing lower vs. higher skills -Knowledge vs. application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation -Authentic tasks e. . multiple choice, T/F, matching (recognition), short answer, essay (recall) Paper and Pencil Assessment Strengths -Can cover a lot of material reasonably well -Fair -Effective in assessing declarative knowledge of content Easier to construct and administer than performance assessments Weaknesses -Require forethought and skill -Less effective in assessing procedural knowledge and creative thinking -Con struction of good higher level recognition items is difficult -Recall items that do a good job of assessing higher level thinking (essay questions) are difficult to score. Performance Assessments assessment that elicits and evaluates actual student performances Types of Performances: Products: drawings, science experiments, term papers, poems, solution to authentic problems Behavior: time trial for running a mile, reciting a poem, acting tryouts, dancing Performance assessments Strengths Ã¢â¬â Effective for assessing higher level thinking and authentic learning -Effective for assessing skill and procedural learning -Interesting and motivating for students Weaknesses -Emphasize depth at the expense of breadth Difficult to construct -Time consuming to administer -Hard to score fairly How can we assess student learning? Traditional assessment: assess student knowledge and skills in relative isolation from real world context. Traditional assessment practices reflect what students are able to recall from memory through various means, such as, multiple choice, true/false, fill in the blank, and matching questions. Authentic assessment: assess studentsÃ¢â ¬â¢ ability to use what theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve learning in tasks similar to those in the outside world. Occurs when the authenticity of student learning has been observed. It requires information from a variety of source such as content work samples, observation during class activities, and conferences with students. Classroom Assessment Informal Assessment: teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ spontaneous, day to day observations of student performances. Examples Verbal -Asking questions -Listening to student discussions -Conducting student conferences Nonverbal -Observing -Task performances -On-and off-task behavior -student choices -student body language Informal Assessment Strengths -Facilitates responsive teaching -Can be done during teaching -Easy to individualize Weaknesses -Requires high level of teacher skill -Is vulnerable to -Bias -Inequities Ã¢â¬âMistakes Classroom Assessment Formal assessment : assessment that is planned in advance and used to assess a predetermined content and/or skill domain. Strengths -allows the teacher to evaluate all students systematically on the important skills and concepts -helps teachers determine how well students are progressing over the entire year -provides useful information to parents and administrators. Portfolios A collection of student samples representing or demonstrating student academic growth. It can include formative and summative assessment. It may contain written work, journals, maps, charts, survey, group reports, peer reviews and other such items. Portfolios are systematic, purposeful, and meaningful collections of studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ work in one or more subject areas. Importance of Portfolios For Students Shows growth over time Displays studentÃ¢â¬â¢s accomplishment Helps students make choices Encourages them to take responsibility for their work Demonstrates how students think Importance of Portfolios For Teachers Highlights performance-based activities over year Provides a framework for organizing studentÃ¢â¬â¢s work Encourages collaboration with students, parents, and teachers Showcases an ongoing curriculum Facilitates student information for decision making Importance of Portfolios For Parents Offer insight into what their children do in school Facilitates communication between home and school Gives the parents an opportunity to react to what their child is doing in school and to their development Shows parents how to make a portfolio so they may do one at home at the same time Importance of Portfolios For Administrators Provides evidence that teacher/school goals are being met Shows growth of students and teachers Provides data from various sources What do portfolios contain? Three basic models: Showcase model, consisting of work samples chosen by the student. Descriptive model, consisting of representative work of the student, with no attempt at evaluation. Evaluative model, consisting of representative products that have been evaluated by criteria. Disadvantages of Portfolio Require more time for faculty to evaluate than test or simple-sample assessment. Require students to compile their own work, usually outside of class. Do not easily demonstrate lower-level thinking, such as recall of knowledge. May threaten students who limit their learning to cramming for doing it at the last minute. Rubric It is a scoring guide that seeks to evaluate a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s performance based on the sum of a full range of criteria rather than a single numerical score. It is a working guide for students and teachers, usually handed out before the assignment begins in order to get students to think about the criteria on which their work will be judged. Rubrics are scoring criteria for Free-response Questions Scientific reports Oral or Power point presentations Reflections/Journals Essay Laboratory-based performance tests Article review or reactions Portfolios Many others Open-ended Question Concept Mapping It requires students to explore links between two or more related concepts. When making concept maps, they clarify in their minds the links they have made of the concepts and having visual representation of these links, they are better able to rearrange of form new links when new concepts are introduced. Laboratory Performance In this format students and teachers know the requirements in advance and prepare them. The teacher judges the student performance within a specific time frame and setting. Students are rated on appropriate and effective use of laboratory equipment, measuring tools, and safety laboratory procedures as well as a hands-on designing of an investigation. Inventories Diagnostic Inventories: Student responses to a series of questions or statements in any field, either verbally or in writing. These responses may indicate an ability or interest in a particular field. Interest Inventories: student responses to questions designed to find out past experience and or current interest in a topic, subject or activity. Classroom Assessment Presentation : a presentation by one student or by a group of students to demonstrate the skills used in the completion of an activity or the acquisition of curricular outcomes/expectations. The presentation can take the form of a skit, lecture, lab presentation, debate etc. Computers can also be used for presentation when using such software as Hyperstudio, Powerpoint or Corel presentations. Peer Evaluation : judgments by students about one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s performance relative to stated criteria and program outcomes Journal Assessment This refer to studentÃ¢â¬â¢s ongoing record of expressions experiences and reflections on a given topic. There are two types: one in which students write with minimal direction what he/she is thinking and or feeling and the other requires students to compete a specific written assignment and establishes restrictions and guidelines necessary to accurately accomplish the assignment. Journals can evolve different types of reflecting writing, drawing, painting, and role playing. REFLECTIVE JOURNAL What did I learn? How do I feel about it? What happened? SYNTHESIS JOURNAL How I can Use It? What I learned? What I Did? SPECULATION ABOUT EFFECTS JOURNAL What could happen because of this? What happened? V. CONCLUSION A fair assessment is one in which students are given equitable opportunities to demonstrate what they know and can do. Classroom assessment is not only for grading or ranking purposes. Its goal is to inform instruction by providing teachers with information to help them make good educational decisions. Assessment is integrated with studentÃ¢â¬â¢s day-to-day learning experiences rather than a series of an end-of-course tests. Why link assessment with instruction? Better assessment means better teaching. Better teaching means better learning . Better learning means better students. Better students mean better opportunities for a better life. VI. RECCOMENDATION Specific assessment tools, listed below, are strongly recommended to faculty and department heads for their ability to provide useful information for accountability and, more importantly, to foster dialogue to improve student learning within courses. These three assessment tools are strongly recommended because they are concise and effective direct evaluations as opposed to indirect evaluations. Direct evaluations can be both formative (the gathering of information about student learning during the progression of a course or program, usually repeatedly, to improve the learning of those students) and summative (the gathering of information at the conclusion of the course, program or undergraduate career to improve learning or to meet accountability demands. ) 1. Rubrics:Ã These are the most flexible types of direct assessments and can be used to score any product or performance such as essays, portfolios, skill performances, oral exams, debates, project/product creation, oral presentations or a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s body of work over the course of a semester. Since we are talking about assessing Ã¢â¬Å"officialÃ¢â¬ course learning outcomes that are stated in course documents, all faculty teaching that course must agree on a detailed scoring system that delineates criteria used to discriminate among levels and is used for scoring a common assignment, product or performance or set of assignments, products or performances. Information can be obtained from the course documentÃ¢â¬â¢s assignment and evaluation pages to help guide the creation of the rubric. Pros: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Defines clear expectations. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Can be used to score many kinds of assignments or exams Ã¢â¬ ¢ Faculty define standards and criteria and how they will be applied Cons: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Faculty must agree on how to define standards and criteria and how they will be applied 2. Common Final Exam or Common Capstone Project:Ã These direct assessment methods integrate knowledge, concepts and skills associated with an entire sequence of study in a course. Either use the same final exam for all sections offered in a course (commercially produced/standardized test or locally developed final exam) or require a culminating final project that is similar (using the same grading rubric to evaluate). Pros: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Good method to measure growth over time with regard to a course Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cumulative Ã¢â¬ ¢ The data is more robust if all students complete the same assessment Ã¢â¬ ¢ Provides an additional buffer between student learning performance and an individual instructorÃ¢â¬â¢s teaching performance Cons: Focus and breadth of assessment are important Ã¢â¬ ¢ Understanding all of the variables to produce assessment results is also important Ã¢â¬ ¢ May result in additional course requirements Ã¢â¬ ¢ Requires coordination and agreement on standards 3. Embedded Test Questions:Ã Embed the same agreed upon questions that relate to the courseÃ¢â¬â¢s student learning outcomes into the final exam for all sections of the course and analyze tho se results and/or embed the same agreed-upon requirements into the final project/assignment for all sections of the course and analyze those results. Pros: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Good method to measure growth over time with regards to a course Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cumulative Ã¢â¬ ¢ The data is more robust if all students complete the same assessment Ã¢â¬ ¢ Provides an additional buffer between student learning performance and an individual instructorÃ¢â¬â¢s teaching performance Ã¢â¬ ¢ Embedded questions can be reported as an aggregate Cons: Ã¢â¬ ¢ May result in additional course requirements Ã¢â¬ ¢ Requires coordination and agreement on standards If some instructors embed and others do not, the data will be difficult to compare and analyze Ã¢â¬ ¢ Separate analysis of embedded set of questions is required VII. REFERENCES https://www. google. com. ph/search? q=ASSESSMENT+TOOLS+PPT;rlz=2C1GTPM_enPH0537PH0537;aq=f;oq=assessment+tools+;aqs=chrome. 0. 59j57j61j60l2j0. 3437j0;sourceid=chrome;ie=UTF-8 http://www. slideshare. net/armovil/assessment-of-student-learning? from_search=2 Fulks, Janet, Ã¢â¬Å"Assessing Student Learning in Community CollegesÃ¢â¬ , Bakersfield College, 2004