Tuesday, January 14, 2020

A Golden Age: 1960s

The 1960s era, commonly referred to as the â€Å"Golden Age†, represents a fascinating turning point for economic and post war policies world over. It was a decade stretch that lasted soon after the Second World War to initial oil crisis that began in 1973.Recognized economists, politicians and senior government officials have deliberated upon the socio-economic policies and their consequences during that period.There has been much speculation concerning whether there were errors in the 1960s economic policies that could have contributed to the great inflation of the 1970s. Key players’ roles in that era’s major economic decisions are scrutinized to establish their positive and negative contributions to the great economic boom and the negatively perceived inflation.Some of these figures included Lord O’Brien who was the Bank of England’s Governor between 1966 and 1973. The considerations were both from an official or a political position held by the individuals.However, even with the inflation, the 1960s decade seem to be an economic golden age as viewed from the 1990s perspective due to the major economic reformations and inventions that took place during the period. It is in this respect regarded as an economic apogee whose high/crest preceded the tribulations decent that followed. National income’s growth rate was faster than ever in history (Jason, 2001, p.45).The unemployment level in Britain for example remained below 2.5% of the total labour. In many instances, it remained below 2%, far much below the proceeding two decades. For most of this golden decade, the inflation averaged below 4% even though it was a reason for major concern especially as it rose to between 5-6% in and within the last 2 years of the decade.The 1967 balance of payments devaluation particularly led to surplus that was very healthy after it was affected to abide to post war years problems.Generally, 1960s is regarded as a social and economic policy experimental period where major innovations took place and resulted to admirably noteworthy economic revolutions. In Britain for example the endless departures successions in the countries fiscal policies including gains in capital tax, regulatory tax, selective employment and corporation tax were major economic factors on the one side of the ledger whereas grants on investments and regional employment premiums comprised the other (Diller, 1995, p.23).The National Plan and the National Economic Development Council were the major economic organs of the government that attempted to accelerate the economic growth rate especially through the use of long successive experimentation of income policies to control inflation.Industrial restructuring was done through the industrial reconstruction corporation as a concerted effort to have an overhaul of the industrial. The 25% premium surrender on investment currency on temporary surcharged imports played a vital role in the balance of payments operations as efforts were made to join the European Community.Other methods included opening of new universities as well as relaxation of procedures of Open University Learning system. This was facilitated by relaxations in the â€Å"permissiveness† law.However, the golden age survivors usually do not see back to it with any particular individual resounding success. Most of them don’t have the feeling that they had singularly been carried or blessed for the successes but are sometimes retrospective on the fact that this period was also characterized by crises especially the balance of payments crisis.Notably, the long uncertainties of currency, the 1968 catastrophic prediction of the following years and the long deferred 1967 devaluation to reduce difficulties in the balance of payments were some of these crises. And several years later, a number of the 1960s experiments were abandoned (Caircross, 1992, p.13).Furthermore, the 1990s reappearances of difficulti es in the balance of payments may perhaps revive the experiments and crises of the 1960s.Considering for example the narrowly fixed exchange rate limits within the European monetary system, and the external deficit that is enormously increasing, the temptation to revert to the golden age policies and innovations is quite strong. Britain’s dilemma comes from an inclination of great magnitude of restoring her competitive power.Other countries of the world have also experienced these difficulties as well although different world industrial economies experience substantiated differential effects.This is especially considering the fact that continental countries had a faster growth rate as compared to the UK but in the 1950s they grew less fast than the UK did. All countries therefore had their unique problems.Paris experienced riots and a strike that almost brought the government down early in 1968, between 1969-70 Germany suffered a great inflation than at any other time after t he war whereas French franc devalued within one year after the sterling pound and again towards the end of the golden decade (Stuart, 1999, p.32).

Monday, January 6, 2020

Women s Experiences During The Holocaust - 898 Words

While women’s experiences during the Holocaust were not entirely different from those of men, it would be false and misleading to assert that they were identical. There were many instances in which an individual’s ordeal was shaped by his or her gender and it is only by understanding what was unique to women and children, and what was unique to men, that we can provide a complete account of what occurred during the Holocaust. One of the reasons it took so long for historians to comprehend the importance of these perspectives is because women were busy rebuilding their lives after the Holocaust. It wasn’t until the 1970s when feminist scholarship was sparked, that there became an interest in the stories of women survivors. Eventually, after the women were able to put their lives back together and raise their children, it became important for them to share their memoirs. One source of gender difference during the Holocaust experience women had more anticipatory reactions towards Nazi danger. In Germany, even before the 1938 Kristallnacht pogrom, it was often the women who had to assume new roles to rescue other family members. It was assumed that the Nazis would not harm women, so it was typically women who went to the police, the SS and the municipality to protest haphazard actions against their children and families and to secure the release of husbands and sons who had been detained or arrested. In organizing and arranging the details of everyday life, such as who shouldShow MoreRelated Women and the Holocaust Essay example706 Words   |  3 PagesWomen and the Holocaust nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The Jewish female is like the ovule of a flower, it spreads its seeds to create future generations. It is known that the true root of a Jewish person lies in the hands of his/her mother. As it was once said by Golda Meir, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“To be successful, a woman has to be much better at her job than a man.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Golda Meir Quotes par. 1). And in fact it is true, that women had to be better than man to survive the holocaust, but not only to survive the holocaustRead MoreA Diary Every Day By Anne Frank1681 Words   |  7 PagesSix million innocent, loving, caring Jewish people were ruthlessly murdered during the Holocaust, yet there was little insight into exactly how these people were treated before their deaths. However, one girl, by the name of Anne Frank, wrote in her diary every day, unaware that her diary entries would solve this issue. She was born in the large German town of Frankfurt. Anne was an ordinary child, with dreams for her future, and friends and family who supported and loved her, unaware that she wouldRead MoreCultivating The Gardens : Candide And Night1577 Words   |  7 PagesChris Skowron Professor Dwan Simmons English 2110 November 26th, 2014 Cultivating the gardens: Candide and Night The Holocaust was a genocide in which approximately six million Jews were killed by the Nazi regime under the command of Adolf Hitler. While many did perish during the holocaust, some survived to tell the haunting tales of what they endured. One of which was a young Romanian man named Elie Wiesel, a Jewish-American professor and political activist. (The Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity)Read MoreThe Trains Of Treblinka Which Carried The Prized Possessions Of The Most Horrible Events912 Words   |  4 PagesThe holocaust can be regarded as one of the most awful events in history and the swastika continues to be a constant reminder of the horrendous acts of hate that were bestowed onto human lives. More than 1 million people were brutally murdered at the hands of an evil dictator named Adolf Hitler. Some of the vivid events and actions that took place during this time have been highlighted in the poem â€Å"The Trains† written by William Heyen. Heyen discusses the trains of Treblinka which carried the prizedRead More THE HOLOCAUST Essay1711 Words   |  7 PagesTHE HOLOCAUST The Holocaust was the mass annihilation of the European Jews by the National Socialist Party (Nazi) of Germany from 1933 to 1945. In The War of the Jews, Dawidowicz explains the conditions that made anti-Semitism politically acceptable. The Germans of the nineteenth century inherited a Christian-inspired popular and intellectual anti-Semitism that depicted Jews as foreigners- a state within a state- killers of Christ, well poisoners, and a cause of every misfortune, whether naturalRead MoreThe Horrors Of The Holocaust1605 Words   |  7 PagesSpeculations about the grim events during the very horrific Holocaust are unfortunately being denied stating it was not as gruesome as many may have stated it was or did not even exist to begin with. This is not only outrageous but disrespectful to those who lost their lives during the gruesome time. History states that the Holocaust was a period in time where a very fascist dictator, Adolf Hitler, killed over six million European Jews who di d not fit the criteria of genetically having blonde hairRead MoreThe Destruction Of The Holocaust1203 Words   |  5 PagesSix million jews. Six million innocent men, women and children. Emerging from the ashes and corpses, one man had the intention of preserving this tragedy, yet at the same time preventing it. Elie Wiesel’s fulfilled his purpose of showing the heinous crimes of the Holocaust through the change of characterization of Elie before, during and after the events of Wiesel s 1940 memoir-Night. The Holocaust is remembered as a stain on history, where a massive genocide occurred. but we must also recognizeRead MoreSchindler s Morals And The Holocaust955 Words   |  4 Pages 1. Throughout the film, Oskar Schindler s morals changed as the film progressed, he transformed into caring person from an acquisitive person. Schindler is a flawed person. In the beginning of the film, Schindler s sole purpose was to make a profit of the war by hiring Jewish people and using the Jewish people s wealth to create the company. However, as Schindler s relationship with Itzhak Stern progressed and witnessing the violence towards the Jews, he started to reconsider his actions. ForRead MoreElie Wiesel s The Holocaust1315 Words   |  6 PagesThe Holocaust appeared to be a time of darkness and it seemed like on Earth and in heaven, each doorway of humanity, empathy, and kindness had been closed down. Those who did not encounter the Holocaust cannot begin to comprehend what it was like, however, those who did cannot begin to express it. Torture, genocide, and cruel acts started to fill brains and souls. The Holocaust was an event where millions of people were being murdered during World War II. The memoir, Night by Elie Wiesel is basedRead MoreThe Causes And Historical Origins Of The Gulag Archipelago1381 Words   |  6 PagesMost of books especially those written by survivors about the experience of holocaust have mainly two purposes. The first one is to record the full horror of the historical crimes such as holocaust, labor forced camps, and etc. The second one is detailed explanation and description of the causes and historical origins of that experience. The Gulag Archipelago is a three volume non-fictional book written by a famous Russian historian, novelist, story writer, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn between 1958 and

Sunday, December 29, 2019

Kill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee - 2134 Words

â€Å"Everybody sees what you appear to be ... few people know who you really are.† This saying illustrates that if you appear one way, no one can see who you really are inside. When someone appears one way, you do not really get to know them but when they truly become themselves you can really see who they are and not just who they appear to be. However, they may only reveal their true selves to some people and keep acting like a different person to everyone else, or keep everything to themselves and do not show anyone their true self. Dolphus Raymond, Boo Radley and Atticus Finch in the novel, To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, all show themselves in a different way. Dolphus reveals himself to Scout and Dill during the trial at the court.†¦show more content†¦The truth is that he is very courageous because he is not afraid of lying to the whole town to be â€Å"drunk† all the time. He does that because he wants to give the town a reason for living the way t hat he does. Scout and Jem have always thought of Dolphus as an â€Å"evil man† because he was a drinker. Jem and Scout have always thought that Mr. Raymond was drunk because everybody else in Maycomb thought of him in the same way: When Dolphus is going through the town on his thoroughbred horse, Jem says â€Å"Don’t see how he stays in the saddle† because he feels the same way as the rest of the town, that he is drunk all of the time. Dolphus takes his sack bag, filled with â€Å"whiskey†, around everywhere and he sips out of it every so often to appear to be drunk. He is also appeared to have had feelings for a black woman while about to get married to a Spencer lady, but when she found out that Dolphus had feeling for a black woman, she shot herself in the head. That is when the whole town thought that Dolphus started drinking. Furthermore, he came across as being considered like trash because he prefers the company of the black people, and he is disliked by most of the white people in the town because of that. That is just how he appears to be to the town of Maycomb, but he is really a courageous and caring man. In truth, Dolphus is a compassionate and brave man and he wants Maycomb to understand

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Ludwig Van Beethoven, Composer Of All Time, And For Good...

Ludwig van Beethoven is perhaps the most well known composer of all time, and for good reason. Born in the Classical era, Beethoven composed music that people could connect to and feel in a way that they had never experienced before. Beethoven was a great musical innovator as a result of his work as a composer, his assistance in the transition from the Classical era to the Romantic era of music, and his famous Ninth Symphony. Ludwig van Beethoven was born on either December 16th or 17th in the year 1770. The precise birthdate of Beethoven is unknown, but these two dates are assumed because he was baptized on December 17, 1770. Beethoven grew up in the city of Bonn, which is located in Germany. Other than one trip to Holland when he was†¦show more content†¦Beethoven writes on in this letter his thoughts of suicide, but that he refrained from doing so because he felt called to compose more than his current repertoire at the time had. Even while going deaf, Beethoven continue d to create magnificent pieces of music that forcefully carried emotion into its listener’s ears with pieces like the famous Moonlight Sonata and Piano Sonata in E Minor. This music that Beethoven was composing had true passion behind it, which is something that contributed in the shift from the Classical Era to the Romantic Period in music. The word â€Å"simplicity† can be used to describe Beethoven’s numerous compositions because they were not the intricate fast-moving pieces that Mozart was known for, but rather simple and elegant musical pieces. Many musicians have one notable work that soars above the rest, and Beethoven falls into this category as well. In the years 1822-1824, Beethoven composed his most well known piece, the Ninth Symphony. The Ninth Symphony was performed for the very first time on May 7, 1824, and was dedicated to the King of Prussia. The Ninth Symphony has four separate movements, but the most popular movement is the 4th movement. Th e infamous and perhaps mostShow MoreRelatedThe Life And Works Of Ludwig Van Beethoven1016 Words   |  5 PagesWorks of Ludwig van Beethoven What you are, you are by accident of birth; what I am, I am by myself. There are and will be a thousand princes; there is only one Beethoven (Beethoven, Favorite Classical Composers). This quote by Ludwig van Beethoven shows just how confident of a composer he was. When people to day think of Beethoven they may think of some of his famous works such as Missa solemnis, his Ninth Symphony, or his Pastoral Symphony. Other people may see Beethoven as a deaf composer who livedRead MoreThe Music Of Ludwig Van Beethoven1701 Words   |  7 Pages Ludwig van Beethoven Music has been around a long time and is a big part of America’s history. There are many styles of music such as, Rap, RB, Jazz, Classical, Oldies and so on. There has been many great composers throughout the years, these people are legends that will stand for ever such as, Beethoven, George Frideric Handel, and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The one artist that I’m going to write about in this paper is the one and only Ludwig van Beethoven. Beethoven was a deaf GermanRead MoreThe Music Of Ludwig Van Beethoven1408 Words   |  6 PagesLudwig van Beethoven When I was 7 years old, my parents signed me up for music school. I did not want to go to music school, but they wanted me just to try. In first class we were just listening classical music and it really sounded boring. But when Beethoven’s fifth symphony came on, I fell in love with classical music and I wanted to study it even more. My sister was also in musical school and she played piano and when I came back from school, I was begging her to play me some of Beethoven’s piecesRead MoreThe Works Of William Shakespeare s Beethoven 1260 Words   |  6 PagesHowever, his one opera would have to be at the top of the list. Fidelio was the only opera Beethoven wrote. Not only was it his only opera, but he rewrote it three times with at least â€Å"four different overtures† (Hanning 378). If this does not show Beethoven’s quality is his work then what does? He wanted this opera to be absolutely perfect, and it was fantastic! Not only were the music and words great, but Beethoven made sure to have a strong plot line to back it up. â€Å"Beethoven’s music transforms thisRead MoreThe Death Of Beethoven And His Music1349 Words   |  6 PagesOnly a few composers in the history of time have ever successfully left their mark throughout our musical world we live in today. It’s been over two hundred years since the birth of Beethoven and his music still speaks to us today as he originally expressed and composed it. Ludwig Van Beethoven was born in the city of Bonn Germany on December 16th 1770 and has since been one of the most influential composers known to man. A common theme of early age learning and mastering seems to emerge in Beethoven’sRead MoreMusic Compare and Contrast1570 Words   |  7 PagesSince the beginning of time, many bands and artists have helped shape the way people live. Thirty Seconds to Mars, with lead singer Jared Leto, is a very successful pop-rock band. Starting in 1998, the members of this ban d did not have it easy. Neither did Ludwig van Beethoven who grew to be one of the most successful composers of all time. Taking in the world and challenges around them, both of these artists overcame many obstacles to become what they are known for. Their fans have followed andRead MoreThe Music That Changed The World1797 Words   |  8 Pages Beethoven Edgar Gallegos South Piedmont Community College There are have been many composers are there will be new composers that will come in time and they will have their different ideas. They come from many places and many different time periods. And they all have their different styles like we do know.Today’s music is very strange as it has different styles rhythms and totally different instruments. For example the techno music that is being played today. There are no instrumentsRead MoreLudwig Van Beethovens Life and Accomplishments Essay898 Words   |  4 Pages Ludwig Van Beethoven was born on December 16, 1770 in Bonn, Germany and he died on March 26, 1827 in Vienna Austria. Beethoven’s music is mostly associated with the classical era because that is when he crafted most of his greatest works. Beethoven’s father and grandfather were both musicians that played at Court of Elector of Cologne. Beethoven’s main instrument that he played was the piano. He was taught by his father how to play the piano. His father was very strict on him, and sometimes heRead MoreBeethoven Paper, about his life and works.1966 Words   |  8 PagesLudwig von Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven is a name that is common to most people and is synonymies with great classical music. He is known, quite loosely, as the German composer who created beautiful pieces with an incredible disability. Despite an unhappy family setting and the deafness that struck soon after, the man appeared to rise from his misfortunes and follow his passion. Mr. Beethoven created some of the most wonderful music and is considered one of the greatest musicians of all time.Read MoreIn This Paper We Will Go Through The Development Of The2089 Words   |  9 Pageslook at three different composers, Joseph Haydn, Ludwig van Beethoven, and Johannes Brahms. We are going to look and see how they treated the keyboard in their lives and compositions. For each of the composers we will look at one keyboard chamber piece so we can learn just a little more about how important it was to each composer and why. [introduction paragraph to be continued] The first composer we will be looking at is Joseph Haydn. He was one of the earliest composer of the nineteenth century

Friday, December 13, 2019

Meiji Restoration Free Essays

It is a fact that the Meiji Restoration managed to accomplish a great many revolutionary changes, but without a revolutionary level of violence. How did this happen? To understand this, one must know what the Meiji Restoration was and when it took place. It was through the years from 1867 to 1868 that the Tokugawa Era under the great Tokugawa Liasu came to an end with the Meiji restoration, in which the Emperor Meiji moved from Kyoto to Tokyo where the new Imperial Capital was established. We will write a custom essay sample on Meiji Restoration or any similar topic only for you Order Now However, at the same time, the actual political power was effectively transferred from Tokugawa to a group of small time noblemen, and Japan was forced to enter into treaties with Westerners, in much the same way as any other subjugated Asian nation. (Meiji Period 2002) In short, it can be stated that this period in the history of Japan has been termed a ‘renewal’, in which Japan’s political and social structure became unalterably changed, and because of which Japan launched into its industrialization period. Intended as a strong measure to consolidate power against the shogunate, the samurai and the daimyo, all remnants of the Edo government, Tokugawa lands were seized and placed under the ‘imperial control.’ (Meiji Restoration 2008) The Samurai had to be destroyed, and most Samurai, although they resented the change bitterly, had to comply.   With the Meiji restoration came electricity and wheels in the form of the first ‘rickshaw’ ever. Trains followed soon, as did several other reforms and changes, the most important of which was a semblance of democracy. Education became more important than before, and the nation started progressing in leaps and bounds. People now felt that they too had a say in how the country was to be run, and everywhere, everyone appeared to be satisfied with the advances that their country was making in all fields. (The Meiji Restoration (n.d) The issue here is this, how much influence did western powers have over the Meiji restoration in Japan? Were the radical ideas more in keeping in accordance with the local tenor, or were they drastically different? Why then did the shogunate fall quickly, without really offering any resistance? One of the most important things to remember when studying Japanese history is the fact that one must never consider the class struggles that are generally applied for revolutions of all kinds; instead, one must note that the interests of merchants and the ruling classes became so closely inter connected that anything that hurt one would automatically hurt the other. For example, all big merchants depended upon the interest from loans given to the samurai to survive, and the samurai were customers of the chonin, who felt that their own prosperity was closely tied up with the warrior classes, and this meant that they would not think of attacking the existing feudal system, even if it was unfair to them. As the Meiji restoration progressed, the samurai and the aristocrats stood together, thereby showing the world that the revolution in itself was not at all about a rising class that managed to destroy feudalism, nor was it a democratic revolt that offered greater power to representatives of the working classes of Japan. Researchers state confidently that the Meiji restoration would never have been possible but for interference that Japan received from Western powers, including British, American, French, German and Dutch. It is said that some small bits of advice were also obtained from the workers who had been engaged by the Japanese government in various positions such as pilots, engineers, financial advisers, and university and school teachers, among others. Historians believe that it was the presence of Westerners in Japan that undermined the Shogunate, and that this was one of the reasons why it fell so quickly without resistance. One must remember that the rapid economic growth in Japan during the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries had made sure that the country was in a position of being readily transformed into a new social order, and by this time, the ‘absurd’ policies of Tokugawa had become completely foolish and outdated, given the social and political conditions in the country at the time. Nationalism and patriotism and national consciousness had also pervaded the people of Japan, and with the arrival of the Perry expedition, at which point of time the arrival of foreigners was considered an attack on the basic traditional values of Japan, the collapse became imminent, and one can understand that Western powers had intentionally or unintentionally applied pressure on Japan and had paved the way for the reforms about to take place, and for the fall of the Shogunate to happen. At the same time, one must also remember that even without Western influence from the United States, Great Britain and Russia among others, the radical reforms of the Meiji restoration would have been inevitable, and although several of the ideas were indeed shaped by Western influences, local flavors too played a very important role in the Meiji restoration and in the fall of the Shogunate. Therefore, it must be stated that the Meiji restoration is in actuality the result of two important factors: the decay within Japan of her present feudal society, and the pressure applied by Western powers to bring an end to Tokugawa’s outdated regime. (Chung, TK 2007) Works cited Meiji Period (1868-1912) â€Å"History† Japanguide.com (2002) Retrieved on February 25, 2008 from http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2130.html â€Å"The Meiji Restoration† History Text (n.d) Retrieved on February 25, 2008 from http://cla.calpoly.edu/~mriedlsp/History315/MeijiText.html â€Å"Meiji Restoration† Wikipedia (2008) Retrieved on February 25, 2008 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meiji_Restoration Chung, TK â€Å"The Meiji Restoration, Background† The corner of the world (2007) Retrieved on February 25, 2008 from http://www.thecorner.org/hist/japan/meiji1.htm          How to cite Meiji Restoration, Essay examples

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Injury and Population Displacement †Free Samples to Students

Question: Discuss about the Injury and Population Displacement. Answer: Introduction: Armed conflicts refers to situations complex in nature occurring from factors such as economic, historical, political, and psychological conditions where such factors point to the resort to the use of force in attaining set objectives. Economics and power go hand in hand where nations strive to become the economic powers of the world and thus engage in competition to remain and become leaders in the sector. The constant desire to control the world depends on the amount or level of economy a nation controls, and thus the rise in armed conflicts due to economic reasons. the paper examines the economic motivations leading to armed conflicts and the manner in which they affect the lives of the people. The economic motivations to armed conflicts refer to the incentives and material considerations prompting nations to resort to the use of force in attaining their desires and expected control over other nations. International wars have always erupted due to the growing desire to access distant and scarce markets and resources and assume ultimate control over them for political reasons (Spear 74). Once nations begin to fight for the control of the economy through seizing markets and their respective control, cases of armed conflicts arise. A clear example exists in the case of China and America where a growing competition between the West and the East continues to grow for economic reasons. Presently, China is experiencing great economic growth while continuing to grow more rapidly compared to America and other major powers in the world. The fact becomes a worry to the major economic powers due to the threat of being overtaken by the nation in economic leadership. According to Daw, Abdallah, and Aghnaya, economic leadership means a lot as far as leadership and being a super power nation is concerned (105). The influence of the nation continues to thrive with its strong economic performance fueling its military build-up and assertive nature of the region. Consequently, tensions have began arising between China and the United States as the nation strives to undo the existing underpinning of U.S led order. The case serves as an example of the economic reasons to armed conflict. The United States in its desire to remain as an economic power strives to fight off any threat to competition as illustrated by the case of China where it has used its growing economy to equip itself and challenge the underpinnings of the existing US led order. Armed conflict is expected to occur whenever such tensions continue to grow fuelled by other nations that would like to take sides for economic benefits of defending their economic blocs. The case of the Middle East presents another example of the economic reason towards armed conflict. The region is known for its rich and numerous minerals and oil which project the regions growth and possible influence (Daw, Abdallah, and Aghnaya 105). The United States and other major power fight for the control of the nations resources as the allies of the nation defend it leading to armed conflicts. In defense of their region, insurgent groups have emerged to defend their territory and fight off through attacks any nation trying to interfere with their sovereignty or control their activities. As a result, the region has remained in War for several decades as the competitors fuel the unending war for economic reasons. As one side tries to gain control over the region, other major powers across the world take sides and decide to assist the region under oppression. As a result, countries such as China and others, in dispute with the United States sought to assist the region through funds and arms in a bid to fight off the influence of the nation seeking to grow its economic might while limiting those of other nations (Spear 75). Consequently, the situation has led to armed conflict as experienced in the case of Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan among others in the Middle East region. The cost of such a conflict remains high on the Middle East as it has caused a disruption in its economy and subsequent growth of the region. The activities ongoing fail to allow individuals to grow and work normally as the case in other regions of the world. The case justifies the fact that nations become powerful through the control of economies leading to dependence from other nations. America as the present super power would not love to see the growth of other nations such as China as it would change the equation and instead threaten its status as an economic power (Gilpin 18). Consequently, the nation has to do all within its reach to fight off the influence by limiting the military growth and increase in production of the military weaponry that can be used in case of War. An economically powerful nation increases its military base while limiting those of others in remaining influential in case of a break up of War (Daw, Abdallah, and Aghnaya 105). Thus, every nation, and more so the super power ones strive to protect their rule through exercising control and watch on the economy and its subsequent military growth. Armed conflict in the Middle East presents the case of War and retaliation from small groups seeking to fight and defend their nation from a human right perspective, economic self determination, and religious traditions. America tries to spread its influence in the region by imposing sanctions thus leading to the emergence of small groups in arms to reduce the influence and retaliate through acts of terrorism (Gilpin 23). Due to the small and weak power of the insurgent groups, it has resorted to the use of violent and unpredictable acts of terror in solving its grievances against the United States (Serneels and Verpoorten 556). All these occur in a bid to regain economic control of the region and fight for religious concerns as well as the present place culture. The root to all the issue relate to the desire by the super power to control and exercise their influence on matters of economy and defense of the world peace by reducing the arms race and production among nations. Armed conflict has always been present in the past society and majorly played a significant role in the First and Second World War. The quest for control over regions and territories are driven by the economic and political motivators for armed conflict among nations (Szayna et al. 2). Presently, the threat for armed conflict continues to grow between the Western powers and the growing economy of the East. All these are caused by the growing economic development of the region and the desire among the Western nations to remain the superiors in economic control and superpower house. Control of the economy remains critical to the nations and the growing competition remains a threat worth fighting off. A series of reasons to armed conflict exist ranging from historic, political, psychological, and economic concerns. The cases mentioned in the research relate to the growth factors for armed conflict in relation to economic motivators. It is evident that economic factors contribute a lot to the presence of armed conflict given the reliance of power on the resource and economic control a nation has over others. Consequently, the reason for the conflicts and the issues preceding issues can be understood from the perspective of obtaining control and the spirit of competition. The quest for power is always accompanied by the desire and ability to control the economic aspects within a region. Thus, the armed conflict remains inevitable as nations strive to maintain their status quo while others seek to grow their influence over the rest. Works Cited Daw, Mohamed A., Abdallah, El-Bouzedi, and Aghnaya A. Dau. "Libyan armed conflict 2011: mortality, injury and population displacement." African Journal of Emergency Medicine , vol. 5, no. 3, 2015, pp. 101-107. Gilpin, Robert. The political economy of international relations. Princeton University Press, 2016. Serneels, Pieter and Marijke, Verpoorten. "The Impact Of Armed Conflict On Economic Performance: Evidence From Rwanda". Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol 59, no. 4, 2015, pp. 555-592. Spear, Joanna. "Disarmament, demobilization, reinsertion and reintegration in Africa." Ending Africa's wars. Routledge, 2016: 73-90. Print. Szayna, Thomas et al. What Are The Trends In Armed Conflicts, And What Do They Mean For US Defense Policy?. 1st ed., RAND Corporation, 2017, pp. 1-11, https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR1904.html. Accessed 12 Apr 2018.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Urban Sprawl and Public Health Article Summary

â€Å"Urban Sprawl and Public Health†, a journal article authored by Howard Frumkin in 2001 gives a detailed account of the physical and mental effects of urban expansion. The concept ‘urban sprawl’ refers to rapid development of urban areas against slow development of social amenities (Frumkin, 2001, p.3).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Urban Sprawl and Public Health Article Summary specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The author expounds that some of the distinct features that characterize urban sprawl include; increased economic opportunities, poor regional planning, and overreliance on automotive travel, which has a negative effect on physical health (Frumkin, 2001, p.1). Subsequently, abrupt extension of metropolitan areas leads to the emergence of social homogeneity that is undeniably detrimental to the health of city residents. Frumkin (2001, p.1) highlights that the effects of urban spraw l have been debated for long. However, little attention has been focused on health implications arising from this phenomenon. It is essential to note that, urban lounge affect people’s life both positively and negatively. Against this background, this essay provides a summative analysis of the impacts of urban sprawl on mental and physical health of urban residents. In-depth analysis of literature has shown urban sprawl have adverse physical effects among urban dwellers. From the article, it is evident that people are highly motivated to shift from rural to metropolitan areas, yet some essential natural resources are not available in city centres. For instance, in urban areas there are no trees and other aesthetic facilities such as open ground recreational amenities (Frumkin, 2001, p.3). Moreover, the author emphasizes that physical activities in the densely populated urban centres has become a notable challenge. Lack of recreation activities, which are known to alleviate st ress, affects both the physical and mental health of urban dwellers negatively.Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Secondly, research conducted by psychologists indicates that people enjoy automotive commuting, yet it exposes them to mental stress, especially in the eventuality of heavy traffic jam. Moreover, excessive noise originating from traffic and industrial activities deprive urban dwellers a tranquil and calm atmosphere (Frumkin, 2001, p.3). Consequently, due to lack of soothing and restorative atmosphere most people suffer from headaches and other stress-related complications. It is reasonable to illuminate that a shift from suburbs to urban results to social isolation, loneliness and breakup of family ties, and this further leads to mental stress among city dwellers. Besides, Frumkin explicates that urban dwellers are susceptible to illnesses that are associated with larg e crowds. Poor urban zoning and influx of large crowds leads to scarcity of basic amenities. It is definite that when mental health of an individual is threatened, then the physical and emotional state of the body is affected too (Frumkin 2001, p.3). Studies have revealed that excessive commuting results to backaches and self-reported stress. Additionally, cardiovascular ailments have become a common phenomenon due to lack of exercise and stress. Since urban sprawl is characterized by heavy traffic, cases of accidents are rampant especially in situations where traffic safety is neglected (Frumkin, 2001, p.3). Another point of concern is that pollution results to respiratory ailments. Poor urban planning results to scarcity of basic facilities such as water utilized by the public and this can result to an outbreak of waterborne diseases.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Urban Sprawl and Public Health Article Summary specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There is a need to hypothesize that social separation especially among married people due to urban employment results to immorality which has adverse effects to one’s health (Frumkin, 2001, p.3). Consequently, sexual immorality in the urban centres increases the risk of sexually transmitted ailments, thus increasing mortality rate. Reference Frumkin, H 2001, ‘Urban Sprawl and Public health’, Public Health Reports, vol, 117, no.1, pp.1-3. This essay on Urban Sprawl and Public Health Article Summary was written and submitted by user Larissa Woods to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.